Title: History of Computer
Assignment Name: Discussion Question 1 -History of Computer
Course Name and Number: Computer Information Systems A ITT101
Professor: Neil Williams
Date: September 7, 2018
Introduction 2
Vacuum Tubes 2
Transistors 3
Integrated Circuits 3
Microprocessors 3
References 4

First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes
The first computers used vacuum tubes which was created in 1904 by Sir John Ambrose Fleming which was used for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous. First generation computers relied on machine language. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951 (Beal, 2010).

Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors
Transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947 which replaced Vacuum Tubes but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was a higher quality than the vacuum tube, making computers begins to be smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage; it was still a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still used punched cards for input and printouts for output (Beal, 2010).

Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system (Beal, 2010). The Third generation computers used the integrated circuits (IC). Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrated circuit in 1958. It was an important invention in the computer field. The first IC was invented and used in 1961. The size of an IC is about ¼ square inch. A single IC chip may contain thousands of transistors. The computer became smaller in size, faster, more reliable and less expensive. The examples of third generation computers are IBM 370, IBM System/360, UNIVAC 1108 and UNIVAC AC 9000 (Khan, 2013) .
Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh (Beal, 2010).

Beal, V. (2010, August 1). Webopedia. Retrieved from The Five Generations of Computers: https://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/FiveGenerations.asp page1
Khan, J. (2013, Febraruy 16). byte-notes. Retrieved from Five Generations of Computer: http://www.byte-notes.com/five-generations-computers page1

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