The Genes In our body, each cell of DNA has genes .It controls the cell functions, Such as, How it grows quickly How it divides And each cell contains 30,000 different type of genes. These genes are located on chromosomes and it has 25,000 coding genes in the human genome How the gene Works While making a proteins the cells are controlled by genes.Proteins have functions and it acts as to transfer the messages for the cells . Gene Mutation All cancer begins by mutation (it mutates one or two genes in a cell).A mutation are changes it creates the abnormal proteins and changes in the DNA of a gene is called as gene mutation .ex .a mutation in the genes for hemoglobin causes the sickle cell anemia .Then the cells are become a cancer cells because of the gene mutation.Mutations are harmful.A single mutation not causes the cancer,multiple mutations causes the cancer over a life time.There are two types of mutations. Acquired mutations Germline mutations Acquired Mutations This mutation is most common mutation to causes the cancer .it occurs from damage to genes in some particular cells.these are breast cell or colon cell.It goes under divisons forms tumor.Acquired mutation causes the cancer is called as sporadic cancer .This muations are not occur in all cells in the body and it not passed from parent to child. These mutation includes some factors, UV,Age,Viruses,Tobacco etc Germline Mutations(also a inherited cancer) These mutation is less common compared to the acquired mutation.It occurs in sperm cell or egg cell and it passes from parent to child .when the embryo grows in a baby,mutations from sperm cell or egg cell .These mutations are copied into each cell of the body and it affects the reproductive cells,it pass from one generation to generation.Take place in all cancers (about 5-20). The Cancer Gene List and Types Of Genes Linked To Cancer SET DESCRITIONS(cancer related genes) Atlas-It is found in cancer case or gene amplification. And its size 1,509.Human species. CANgenes- it will mutated in all tumors of breast and colon.Here ,191 genes are mutated.And its size 189 .Human species. Human Lymphoma-it is a specific oncogenes compiled by marina cavazzana calvo .And its size 38 .Human species. Sanger-this type of genes are mutated and implicated in cancer development.And its size 719 .Human species. Miscellaneous-it is found on chapter of oncogenes(from retroviruses).And its size 187.Multiple species. Vogelstein- The cancer genes are relates to chromosomal break points.And its size 420.Human species. CIS(RTCGD)- It is found in retroviruses and mutagenesis in mouse hematopoietic tumors.And its size 587.Multiple species. There are 90 of somatic mutations,20 of germline mutations,10 of both mutations. Tumor Genes (genes linked to cancer) Tumor genes are protective genes and it limits cell growth.Ex,BRCA1,BRCA2,and p53orTP53. germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes and it develops the risk of hereditary breast or ovarian cancers in womens and it develops the risk of hereditary prostate or breast cancers in mens.Increases the risk of pancreatic cancer and melanoma in both women and men.People are suffers from most common mutated genes with cancer is p53 or TP53.p53 is most damaged genes by cancers (50) and this p53 genes are acquired mutations its rare in gerline mutations BRCA1,BRCA2andp53 these are all DNA repair genes . Oncogenes It turns healthy cells into cancerous cell.Mutations are not inherited in these genes.two common types of oncogenes are, HER2-a special proteins are controls the cancer growth and found in cancer cells such as breast cell or ovarian cells. RAS-This type is a family of genes,it will makes the proteins and involves the proteins into the communication between cells,cell growth and cell death. Genetic testing Genetic test for some types of cancer such as , breast,ovarian,colon,thyroid cancers. Hereditary Cancer Syndromes Cowden syndrome,lynch syndrome,FAP syndrome,Li-Fraumeni syndrome,VHL syndrome.MEN syndrome. PREVENTATIVE ACTIONS regular exercise balanced diet maintain a weight stay away from thr sun rays not smoking. Cowden syndrome It is characterized by multiple tumor like growths.More patients are suffers with CS and it develops the hamartomas,non-cancerous increases the risk in tumors of the breast,uterus,thyroid and it associated with mutations in he PTEN gene. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) It is also called as gardners syndrome and increases the risk in colon cancer.precancerous colon polyps are called as adenomas.Develops in the gastrointestinal tract. Li-Fraumeni syndrome LFS is a rare genetic condition and increases risk of multiple types of cancer and it diadnosed during childhood ,adolescence or adulthood.LFS have mutations in the TP53 gene. Types of cancers are breast cancer lung cancer leukemia brain tumors Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias MEN syndrome it develops the tumors of endocrine secrete hormones and control the body.The endocrine system reglates the metabolism and sexual functions.Major glands in a system are affected by MEN in pituitary gland. Lynch syndrome HNPCC is also called as Lynch is characterized by early age on colorectal cancer and uterine cancer .these syndrome are DNA repair gene such as PMS2,MLH1,MSH2. Here, two types variant are called Muir Torre syndrome it increases risk for skin tumors and second variant are Turcot syndrome it increases risk for brain tumors.

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