The complex of the Great Pyramids in Giza is one of the most ancient, interesting and famous constructions of antiquity , located on the territory of Egypt. It includes three pyramids (Cheops, Chephren and Menkaure), a sculpture of the Sphinx, and several temples. The pyramids of Giza are very different from all other Egyptian pyramids.
Engineers, analyzing the ways of processing the stone during the construction of the pyramids, came to the conclusion that the builders used a treatment method called trepanization.
In the 1850’s. Among the ruins of the temple of Isis near the Great Pyramid was found a calcareous stele. According to the inscriptions it became known that the big pyramids and the Sphinx were already in place at the time of Pharaoh Khufu.

The Pyramid of Cheops
The officially accepted time of construction of the Great Pyramid of Cheops (Neopsa, Khufu) is considered to be 2560 BC. as the tomb of Pharaoh. The large pyramid has such unique features as upper courses, chambers, niches, mines and the Grand Gallery. Immediately after the construction of the Great Pyramid was faced with white limestone slabs reflecting the sun’s rays, and its top was crowned by a pyramidon (granite pommel). The concavity of one of the faces of the pyramid making up the meter when the faces were polished was noticeable visually – the pyramid reflected sunlight and literally shone (in general, the “pyra” Greek word for fire is consonant with the word pyramid).
The original height of the Cheops pyramid is 146 m (now 138 m – erosion reduced its height). Until the XIV century. (for 4 thousand years) it was the tallest building built by a man on the planet(in England a cathedral was built five meters higher). The pyramid is composed of stone blocks, each weighing an average of 2.5 tons.
Egyptologists associated the construction of the Great Pyramid with the name of Pharaoh Cheops, because they read inscriptions (cartouches), where the name of this pharaoh is mentioned. These inscriptions were made by the builders and left in one of the premises of the pyramid. However, the question of their authenticity remains open.
In recent years, the attention of researchers has been riveted to two small tunnels, having a width of 30×30 cm and considered to be ventilation. However, these “ventilation ducts” were trapped in granite plugs. Moreover, on the plugs, elements interpreted as bronze handles were found. In one of the cork robots, a hole was drilled where the researchers saw a small room, bounded by another granite cork, on which hieroglyphs were painted with red paint. Material from this site
The Sphinx is included in the complex with the Great Pyramids, counting with them of the same age. However, the official dating of the Sphinx age is disputed by the strong weathering of its surface. In the night – cool – the time of dew condenses on the stone surface and sucked into the pores of limestone, forming a solution of salts inside the rock. With the rising of the sunmoisture evaporates, the salt solution crystallizes and expands the pore walls. But the erosion of the Sphinx is much stronger than that of other structures. At the same time, the Sphinx spent much of the time under the sand, without undergoing intensive erosion. In the excavated state of the Sphinx is less than 1000 years for the last 5 millennia. Covered with sand, limestone is practically not destroyed. As a result, one can come to the conclusion that the Sphinx should have been preserved better than other structures of the ancient kingdom that were not filled with sand. And if the traces of the destruction of the Sphinx are not the result of intensive chemical erosion, it was caused by the impact of water currents – the rains that characterized this region in the 5th millennium BC.
The head of the Sphinx, which does not fit the body, is also unusual: it is otherwise eroded, disproportionately small, and besides, it is impossible to understand its racial or national identity from its image. Very strange angle of face and outstanding forward “Neanderthal” jaw.

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