Rodrigue Kuitcha
ESOL 054
Inventions/ Innovations of two early civilizations: Mesopotamia and Egypt
Thousands of years ago, ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt were two dominants and remarkable civilizations. Both were unique in their creations and their transformations. Even though the geography situation of these two cultures were similar because they were close to river, the result of their development was impressive and that continue to affect the world today. Both civilizations made a major contributions in different domains like Transportation, writing, science, and agriculture for Mesopotamia in one hand, the invention in science, construction and Calendar for Egypt in other hand.

One of the important invention or achievement in Mesopotamia was transportation. Because they migrated, Mesopotamian’s started making new road to make travel easier. They made boats and controlling the energy of wind by using sail. They needed boats because they were between rivers. This invention led Mesopotamia to trading between different countries. Also, the invention of the wheel led to wheeled carts which facilitated bartering the horse drawn chariot, but also attached to an axle. The axle proved another formidable challenge for the ancients. Next, the ancient Mesopotamia people were the first to communicate using writing which contributed to the evolution of the humanity. Cuneiform contained over 1200 symbols and was made up of wedge-shape picture like figures. Some people who were selected became scribes and started to record their history and laws. While transportation and writing were one of their achievement in Mesopotamia, the agricultural and domestication of animal were the most important and the base of their achievement. Because of stability and fertility of soil, Mesopotamians started with creation of irrigation canals and that also controlled flooding of rivers. In addition, people started with experimentation of growing crops. An example of this the seeder plow. With all that, Mesopotamia became the home of many tribes. Another civilization who influence positively the world was ancient Egypt.

Many things can be attributed to Egypt civilization’s and in good place some innovations and inventions. The list of achievements in ancient Egypt is too long and people always focus on three major one. The first one is medicine. Some of the earliest innovation in medicine were made by Egyptians. Their doctor had skills to repairing bones and imputing infected limbs. Egyptians were also able to cure humans and animals using many potions. For example, they used a mouse to heal coughs and cow dung to heal and shrill to stave off infections. In addition, many maladies were treated with surgical techniques, and they were the first to practice dentistry. Egyptians bureaucratic hierarchies in medicine were well established. Next, the pyramid. Egypt is probably best known with its pyramids and one of them is one of the Seven Wonders of the World. All the pyramids were built of stone and used extremely simple technology to accomplish sophisticated ends. Also, Egyptians invented calendar. Their calendar was invented 5,000 years ago, it was the first and the most practical calendar to be devised. The months was divided into three season’s base on certain aspects of the river such as how low is water or when Nile River were flood. Other months were named after lunar rituals. Furthermore, the Egyptians were the first ancient civilization to use time keeping devices like sundials, shadow clocks, merkhets and obelisks. They were also used water clock, which was used during religious ceremonies to mark off hours during the night.
All these inventions and innovations, in the ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, two had made numerous contributions in people life today. First, in Mesopotamia, the transportation was the remarkable achievements which helped the multiple generations and continue to lead to other inventions. The transport help people to immigrate, to trade their goods and invention of cartography. Even today, people still built wheel, sophisticate boats and cars because the first discovery was in Mesopotamia. Second, in Egypt, the doctors was able to heal people with some various plant and herb where used in the treatment of wounds, diseases and infections. Today, different plants are used in modern medicine. one of the most important achievements is the understanding and determining of cause of diseases, established different procedures for treatment. Both, transportation and medicine were particularly valuable for people.

Ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt played important role in the development and progress of nations. Their inventions and innovations in different area such as transportation, medicine, calendar, communication, agricultural and irrigation was positively affected the world. The innovations and inventions in Egypt and Mesopotamia still have a big impact on people life today.

Bibliography
Edward I. Bleiberg, “Ancient Egypt 2615-332 B.C.E,” World Eras, Vol 5, Gale, 2002
Peter BoGucki, “Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Ancient World” volume 1, 2008
Robert E. Krebs, Carolyn A. Krebs, “Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries,” Of the Ancient World, Vol 1, 2003
Ronald Wallenfels, “Ancient Mesopotamia 3300-331 B.C.E,” World Eras, Vol 8, Gale, 2005

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