MR. ARSLAN HUSSAIN (2016-1313)JAWAD MAHBOOB BUTT (2016-1314) Dedicated to our loving parents and caring teachers ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful, Alhamdulillah, all praises to Allah Almighty for the strengths and blessings He showered upon us in completing this thesis. Special appreciation goes to our supervisor, Mam. Khalida Sarwar, for her supervision and constant support. Her invaluable help of constructive comments and suggestions throughout the thesis works has contributed to the success of this research. I would like to express my heartfelt appreciation to the Head of ELTL department Dr. Muhammad Islam Sb for his support and help towards our educational affairs throughout. Our deep gratitude is due to all the respectable teachers who blessed us with their precious knowledge throughout this journey of two years. Special thanks to Mr. Nasarullah Mujahid for being such a helpful benefactor all this time. Mr. Mudassir Sohail and Mr. Zeeshan Haiders valuable contributions can never be forgotten. Last but not least the contributions of the one and only Mr. Abdul-Hameed Khan will always be remembered. To rest of the class fellows who indirectly contributed in this research, your kindness means a lot to us. Thank you very much. Approval Certificate Certified that the contents and form of thesis entitled A study of the relationship between the liking for English language and the liking for western/English culture submitted by Arslan Hussain (2016-1313) and Jawad Mahboob Butt (2016-1314) have been found satisfactory for the requirement of the degree of Master of English Language Teaching and Linguistics. Masters research Project Committee Chairman/Supervisor Thesis Committee __________________________________ Internal Member (Mam. Khalida Sarwar) __________________________________ External Member Contents TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc526707159 Chapter1 PAGEREF _Toc526707159 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707160 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526707160 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707161 Background PAGEREF _Toc526707161 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707162 Statement of Problem PAGEREF _Toc526707162 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707163 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc526707163 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707164 Objectives PAGEREF _Toc526707164 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707165 Delimitation PAGEREF _Toc526707165 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707166 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc526707166 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707167 Chapter2 PAGEREF _Toc526707167 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707168 Literature view PAGEREF _Toc526707168 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707169 Motivation PAGEREF _Toc526707169 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707170 Three main factors PAGEREF _Toc526707170 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707171 Types of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc526707171 h 12 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707172 Motivation and Language Learning Motivation PAGEREF _Toc526707172 h 14 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707173 The main reasons students give for studying a modern language (Coleman, 1996) PAGEREF _Toc526707173 h 15 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707174 English in Pakistan PAGEREF _Toc526707174 h 17 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707175 CHAPTER3 PAGEREF _Toc526707175 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707176 Research Design and Methodology PAGEREF _Toc526707176 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707177 Research methodology PAGEREF _Toc526707177 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707178 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc526707178 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707179 Population PAGEREF _Toc526707179 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707180 Sample PAGEREF _Toc526707180 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707181 Research Tools PAGEREF _Toc526707181 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707182 Data collection and Analysis PAGEREF _Toc526707182 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707183 Data Presentation and Analysis PAGEREF _Toc526707183 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707184 Chapter4 PAGEREF _Toc526707184 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707185 Data analysis PAGEREF _Toc526707185 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707186 TABLE 4.1 PAGEREF _Toc526707186 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707187 TABLE 4.2 PAGEREF _Toc526707187 h 26 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707188 TABLE 4.3 PAGEREF _Toc526707188 h 27 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707189 TABLE 4.4 PAGEREF _Toc526707189 h 28 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707190 TABLE 4.5 PAGEREF _Toc526707190 h 29 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707191 TABLE 4.6 PAGEREF _Toc526707191 h 30 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707192 TABLE 4.7 PAGEREF _Toc526707192 h 31 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707193 TABLE 4.8 PAGEREF _Toc526707193 h 32 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707194 TABLE 4.9 PAGEREF _Toc526707194 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707195 TABLE 4.10 PAGEREF _Toc526707195 h 34 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707196 TABLE 4.11 PAGEREF _Toc526707196 h 35 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707197 TABLE 4.12 PAGEREF _Toc526707197 h 36 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707198 TABLE 4.13 PAGEREF _Toc526707198 h 37 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707199 TABLE 4.14 PAGEREF _Toc526707199 h 38 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707200 TABLE 4.15 PAGEREF _Toc526707200 h 39 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707201 TABLE 4.16 PAGEREF _Toc526707201 h 40 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707202 TABLE 4.17 PAGEREF _Toc526707202 h 41 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707203 TABLE 4.18 PAGEREF _Toc526707203 h 42 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707204 TABLE 4.19 PAGEREF _Toc526707204 h 43 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707205 TABLE 4.20 PAGEREF _Toc526707205 h 44 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707206 TABLE 4.21 PAGEREF _Toc526707206 h 45 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707207 TABLE 4.22 PAGEREF _Toc526707207 h 46 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707208 TABLE 4.23 PAGEREF _Toc526707208 h 47 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707209 TABLE 4.24 PAGEREF _Toc526707209 h 48 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707210 TABLE 4.25 PAGEREF _Toc526707210 h 49 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707211 Chapter5 PAGEREF _Toc526707211 h 50 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707212 Summary, Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc526707212 h 50 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707213 Summary PAGEREF _Toc526707213 h 50 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707214 Findings PAGEREF _Toc526707214 h 51 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707215 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc526707215 h 53 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707216 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc526707216 h 54 HYPERLINK l _Toc526707217 References PAGEREF _Toc526707217 h 54 Chapter1 Introduction Background The Muslims have ruled over subcontinent for more or less 1000 years. Different dynasties of the Muslims have been in the government of subcontinent over the course of history. The muslims which came to the subcontinent were of Arabic descent like Muhammad Bin Qasim and some were Afghani like Mahmood Ghaznavi and Syed Ali Hajveri Data Gunj Bakhsh (peace be upon him).Their native languages were Arabic and Persian. So with their arrival they brought these two languages with them in the subcontinent. Both of the languages attained the status as the identity of the muslim nation. These languages were taught to every student in the Madaris and were considered an integral part of the education. But as Wilhelm Von Humboldt says, Absolutely nothing is important for a nations culture as its language, so these two languages brought their cultures with them too. But as Arabic culture had become a synonym to the Islamic culture so this culture was also welcomed whole-heartedly. Mughal rulers used Arabic and Persian as the official languages, and the production of prose and especially poetry in these languages was very common. British came to the subcontinent in the form of traders but they ultimately took over the government of subcontinent. They introduced English language and English educational system in subcontinent. Of course, they were hated by the natives of the subcontinent but might is right. Gradually, the natives also started getting education in these British controlled institutes and hence English spread into the masses. Consequently, English culture also spread with the language. As Nichi Giovanni says, It is not who you attend the school with but who controls the school you attend. So, everything changed from dressing styles to eating habits, from heroes to thoughts and philosophies. New generations started to like English culture, they forgot their own culture and started to consider it old-fashioned and inferior. The materialistic development of English speaking nations also kept them spellbound and they started to consider English educational system far superior than their own conventional educational system. After the independence of Pakistan, this English educational system was to be replaced but unfortunately it was not replaced, so the liking for English language and culture got even stronger. There is a paradox strange enough to surprise researchers that whenever you ask English users in Pakistani society whether they like English language because of their liking for English/European culture, they reply in the negative claiming that English is merely an official and educational need of the hour but they never liked English culture or the language for its own sake. The claim is strange when a person is dressed completely in English style, eats English dishes, likes English songs and movies etc. So, this study is intended to examine the roots of the problem and find out the facts about the phenomenon. Statement of Problem Most of the students in the Pakistani universities seem to like English but claim to dislike English culture and base their liking for English language on their professional or educational needs. But this claim seems to be a fallacy as their life styles reflect a liking for English/European culture. This study aims to investigate whether the liking for English language has its origins in the liking for English culture or is it just based on the professional and educational needs of the students in Pakistan. Research Questions Is the liking for English language a product of liking for English culture or is it just based on the professional and educational needs of the students in Pakistan Objectives The researcher wants to Analyse various social and psychological factors to find out the validity of the hypothesis that liking for English language is an outcome of liking for English culture. Find out the degree of awareness of the people of their own underlying psychological processes. Find out the real motivation of the liking for English language and making it obvious to the people by discussing it explicitly. Delimitation The researchers have delimited their research to the users of English language in Pakistani universities. The delimitation of the research to Pakistani society is based on the fact that the study is intended to find out the said relationship in local settings. Significance of the Study This research is intended to sort out the facts and assumptions made, related to the described phenomenon and have a clearer understanding of our collective cultural thoughts. It will also provide the basis for new prospective studies in this area and open the new corridors of research in the local Pakistani context. Chapter2 Literature view Motivation Johnstone (1999, p. 146), considers motivation as a stimulant for achieving a specific target. Similarly, according to Ryan Deci (2000), To be motivated means to progress or to be in motion to do something. International Journal of Crump (1995) believes that excitement, interest, keenness, and enthusiasm towards learning are the main constituents of motivation. The levels and kinds of motivation in any individual are different from others. In other words, not only levels and amounts of motivation in individuals are different, their kinds of motivation can be also different. Cook (2000) comes across that language acquisition is not the same in learners. Moreover, it has been proposed and recommended that there are three main factors, which concern and influence the Second Language Acquisition. Three main factors These three factors are age, personality, and motivation. He further claims that among the above three issues motivation is the most significant one in second language acquisition. Ellis (1994, p. 715) considers motivation as the attempt which learners make for learning a second language because of their need or desire to learn it. Lightbrown and Spada (2001, p. 33) identifies motivation in second language acquisition as a complex phenomenon which can be defined in terms of two factors learners communicative needs and their attitudes towards the second language community. They believe that when learners think that they need to speak the second language with the aim of being in touch with others or accomplishing and achieving specialized and dedicated desires and goals, they will be stimulated and inspired to obtain expertise and skill in it. Gardner and Lambert (1972) name the mentioned situation as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Research has confirmed that the success or failure in second language learning depends very much on these two kinds of motivation (Lightbrown Spada, 2001). Types of Motivation Integrative instrumental motivation According to Gardner and Lambert (1972), there are two types of motivation integrative and instrumental. The integrative motivation means learning the language with the intention of participating in the culture of its people. And instrumental motivation suggests and implies that a learner learns the language in support of a purpose relating to occupation or further useful motive. These two types of motivation can affect and control the procedure and outcome of learning. Cook (2000) further believes that the integrative and instrumental motivation suggested by Gardner and Lambert is useful and effective factor for second language learning. Gardner (1985) and Ellis (1994) also introduce the mentioned types of motivation The former occurs when the student likes to join or be a member of the certain crowd and the culture. The latter crops up when the learner anticipates numerous benefits that he proposes to have while learning some particular language. Comparing these two types of motivation with each other, Ellis (1994) believes that the best and the perfect motivation is the integrative motivation. He believes that integrative motivation is more competent and well-organized. Students who dont have instrumental or integrative motivation, in fact, will face problems and difficulties to learn and gain knowledge of a second language in the classroom and generally, learning the language would be difficult for them (Cook, 2000). Intrinsic extrinsic motivation There is also another concept in the field of motivation introduced by Ryan Deci (2000) as Self-Determination Theory Ryan Deci (2000) say that Self-Determination Theory categorizes and tells apart diverse types of motivation in accordance with the different rationales, causes, or targets which strengthen a deed or an achievement. In proportion to this theory, the most fundamental difference is between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is the eagerness and interest to do and take part in some certain activities because an individual feels that they are attractive and pleasant. Students who have intrinsic motivation are inclined to stay with intricate and complicated problems and gain knowledge from their slips and mistakes (Walker, Greene, Mansell, 2006). Besides, intrinsic motivation is essential and fundamental for the integration process through which elements of ones accessible internal awareness and knowledge are assimilated or mixed with new knowledge. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is the propensity to take part in activities because of the reasons which do not link to the activity. These reasons can be the anticipation of reward or punishment, like being successful in the exam or getting good marks (Vansteenkiste, Lens, Deci, 2006). To come to the point, intrinsic motivation is a motivation to do an activity because of itself. In fact, the individuals who are intrinsically motivated do and practice the activities and works because they feel that those activities are enjoyable. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is motivation to do a work or an activity as a means or way to achieve a target. Those who are extrinsically motivated perform and do affairs as they think that their contribution will cause enviable results like a reward, teacher admiration, or evasion (prevention) of punishment (Pintrich Schunk, 1996). Motivation and Language Learning Motivation Motivation and Language Learning Motivation is a basic and essential part of learning (Brewer Burgess, 2005). Gardner (1885), believes that with the intention of being motivated, the learner necessitates, requires, and needs to have something to anticipate, foresee, expect and long for, a reason, principle, or rationale having to do with aim or target. Concerning second/foreign language acquisition, this intention would be learning a foreign language. In fact, there must be something that the learner desires to achieve or do, being the target language the vehicle to attain it. According to Cook (2000) the performance and presentation of a number of learners in the context of second or foreign language learning is improved and superior than others. The reason is that they are better motivated. Ellis (1994) sees the incident of learning by means of motivation and believes that the learning process simply occurs when a person is motivated. Relating to this matter, Ellis (1994, p. 508) says that language teachers readily acknowledge the importance of learners motivation, not infrequently explaining their own sense of failure with reference to their students lack of motivation. Cook (2000) states that acquisition of language is not the same among learners. He also believes that there are three main factors which influence the Second Language Acquisition. These three factors are age, personality and motivation. Motivation is the most significant factor among the mentioned three factors that affect second language acquisition. Ellis (1994, p. 715) suggests that motivation is the effort which learners put into learning an L2 as a result of their need or desire to learn it. Also, Lightbrown and Spada (2001, p. 33) identify motivation in SLA as an intricate incident which can be identified along with two factors learners communicative needs and their attitudes towards the second language community. They believe that when learners think that they need to speak the second language with the aim of being in touch with others or accomplishing and achieving specialized desires and goals, they will be motivated to obtain expertise and skill in it. Gardner and Lambert (1972) name the mentioned situation as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Research has proved that whether second language learning is successful or not directly and strongly concerns with these types of motivation (Lightbrown Spada, 2001). The main reasons students give for studying a modern language (Coleman, 1996) For my future career,Because I like the language,To travel in different countries,To have a better understanding of the way of life in the country or countries where it is spoken,Because I would like to live in the country where it is spoken,Because I am good at it,Because it is an international language,To become a better-educated person,To meet a greater variety of people in my life,To get to know/make friends among the people who speak it. Ditual R.C (2012) was of the opinion that the learners with positive attitude towards English Language learning are highly motivated both instrumentally and integratively. He further claimed that learners motivation is not affected by external factors. Christo Moskovsy and Fakieh Alrabai (2009) opined that EFL learning is more influenced by instrumental motivation where as ESL learning is more dependent on integrative motivation. Engin (2009) concluded through a research on the types of motivation necessary to learn a foreign language that instrumental motivation is based on a pragmatic approach where as integrative motivation depends on personal willingness desire to achieve something. Moiinvaziri. M (2009) gave a different view from the researchers who considered instrumental motivation important for EFL learning. He concluded that in English Language learning both instrumental integrative motivation are important. Al-Otaibi (2004) explored that motivated learners can learn foreign language more effectively can bear high expenses and make sacrifices in order to achieve their goals in leaning L2. Brown (2001) stated that motivation refers to the intensity of ones inner drive to learn. An integrative orientation means that the learner is learning L2 for social and cultural goals. The motivation to get the goal can be high or low. Al Hazemi H. (2000) argued that the strong desire for L2 learning contributes a lot to gain high degree of competence to be successful in the accomplishment of learners language learning goals. Lai (1999), after the findings of four studies about L2 achievement concluded that Chinese student in Hong Kong were more career oriented and instrumentally motivated. Dornyei (1994) stated that the nature of social and pragmatic dimensions of target language depends on who, what and where i.e who learns the language, what language and where. Oller et al (1977) identified the importance of motivation in L2 acquisition. Through research he concluded that Chinese learner were integratively motivated while learning English where as Mexican American were instrumentally motivation. English in Pakistan Sociolinguistic Profile In Pakistan there are six major and over fifty-nine minor languages in population of 180 million people. However, the languages that enjoy power in government, corporate sector, media, education, etc- are English and Urdu. Pakistans national language is Urdu which is mother tongue of only 7.57 population in Pakistan (Rehman, 2005). The nationalists have been demanding that government should declare 5 major languages of Pakistan which according to Katzner (1977) are Indo-Iranian as national languages such as (a) Sindhi (spoken by 14.10 people) (b) Punjabi (spoken by 44.15 people (c) Pashto (15.42) (d) Balochi (3.57) and (e) Urdu 7.57 (Census, 2001). Pakistans official language is English which is uncontroversial and language of educated class. English in Pakistan is in process of assimilation and indigenization as reported in research studies It is likely that Pakistani English, like its other south Asian varieties, will have its own complete lexical planning not only on micro sentential level but on macro language planning level. Uses and Users of English in Pakistan English in Pakistan is used for Interpersonal, Instrumental, Regulative and Creative functions (Pathan, 2009). The Census of Pakistani population is due to take place. Only after this census one may know about the total number of speakers/users of English language in Pakistan. English language is used in Education, Military (Army, Navy and Air force), Civil administration and Bureaucracy on provincial and federal government level in Pakistan (Abbas, 1993). It is the major language of legal system in Pakistan on Supreme Court and High Court level. All the laws are written in English. The provincial court is bilingual and sometimes trilingual subject to discretion of the individual Judge (ibid, 1993). Abbas (1993) states that media (radio, tv, newspapers, cinema, advertising) are important function domains of use of English in Pakistan. In Pakistani print media English is used in 20 dailies, 35 weeklies, 33 fortnightlies, 152 monthlies, and 111 quarterlies. In Electronic media there are a number of English channels like CNN (US), BBC (UK), HBO (films), National Geographic, Geo News (local Pakistani), Dawn News (local Pakistani) which are widely watched by people in Pakistan to remain connected with the world. These days even the billboards, sign boards for advertisement of companies are in English (n.d). Pakistan is also a tourist country and its Northern and Tribal areas are center of attraction for the people from foreign countries (Pathan, 2009). The employees of the tourist department and 4 to 5 star hotels speak English. In addition there are a number of multi-national food restaurants in Pakistan like, KFC, MacDonalds, and Pizza Hut where the staff members are trained to speak English. The menu of these restaurants is in English language and people feel strong motivation to place their order in English (ibid, 2009). Michieka (2005) says that imaginative function of English, as Kachru (1992) calls it, refers to the use of the English language in various literary genres. Such as, novel, poetry, prose etc. In Pakistan there is good number of writers who use Pakistani English with PakE lexis and syntax such as (1) Police-wala (Male police officer), (2) Police-wali (female police officer (3) Fruit-mandi, (mandi means market), (4) Super-chamcha, means sycophant (Gramley, 2001 Baumgardner, 1998). English language Teaching in Higher Education in Pakistan English is also taught in the Universities at Bachelors and Masters Level in Pakistan as a compulsory subject to all the disciplines. The medium of instruction in Pakistani Universities is English and those students who have poor English language skills do not survive on the graduate or masters level courses. Mansoor (2005) and Malik (1998) mention that the importance of English is apparent from the fact that English is compulsory subject at graduate level and Urdu (national language) is not. Unfortunately, the students who enter the University do not possess the required skills of English. The major reasons of this failure are mainly flawed pedagogy and inappropriate material at school and college level (vernacular schools) as reported in Pathans (2011) research. The federal as well as provincial service commissions in Pakistan have been ringing alarming bells from time to time for the government to tackle the issue of low proficiency of English at graduate and postgraduate level. Before partition the British government made sure that English language education is promoted through foreign literature (Pathan, 2009). The British went off, however the system went on. English language is unfortunately taught through literature as a subject in which students are taught poetry, prose, essays, novels and dramas and grammatical rules. This kind of course is taught in all the general universities (arts, science and humanities). On the other hand the professional universities (Engineering, Medical, Business Management) are encouraged to teach of functional English and communication skills with communicative methodology. This is because the British Council opened English language centres in professional universities and trained the local teachers (Pathan, 2009). Motivation in SLA Motivation to learn a foreign language involves all those affects and cognitions that initiate language learning, determine language choice, and energize the language learning process (Dornyei, 2000). Barker (1998) is of view that motivation is an individuals desire to succeed in some task or activity. Thornbury (2006 137) says that motivation is what drives learners to achieve a goal, and is a key factor determining success or failure in language learning. The learners goal may be a short-term one, such as successfully performing a classroom task, or the long term one, such as achieving native-like proficiency in the language classroom (ibid, 2006). The long term goals are further divided in (1) Instrumental motivation when the learner has a functional objective, such as passing exam or getting a job- (2) Integrative motivation when learner wants to be identified with the target language community (ibid, 2006). These two major areas are further bisected in (1) Intrinsic motivation and (2) Extrinsic motivation (ibid, 2006). Motivation is one of the central constructs in field of applied linguistics which measures success and failure rate of students learning a second language (Dornyei, 2005 Dornyei, 2001 Doneyei Schmidt, 2001 Brown, 2007). There are three major phases of L2 Motivation research. The first phase begins with socio-psychological approach adopted by Gardner and his associate in Canada (Gardner, 1985 Gardner and Lambart, 1972 Gardner and MacIntyre, 1993). The Major research studies were based on (a) integrative orientation and instrumental orientations, (b) the 1 1 The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (ATMB) is a multicomponent motivation test made up of over 130 items which has been shown to have very good psychometric properties, including construct and predictive validity (Dornyei,2001) Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) and (c) the socio-educational model of Second Language Acquisition (1993). In 1990s the Motivation research took another turn with research on cognitive theories drawn from educational psychology (Dornyei, 2009). The notable ideas related with this period were intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, attributions, self confidence/efficacy and situation specific motives related to the learning environment, e.g. motives related to L2 course, teachers, peers (Dornyei, 2001 William and Burden, 1997). Finally, the motivation research reached at its peak with boom of research papers, inclusion of various constructs of motivation. Amongst them the important were temporal dimension of motivation, process model of motivation, Dornyei (2005) motivational self-system theories and Dornyeis three stage- model on language level, learner level and learning situation level (Gardner, 2001 Noel, 2003 Norton, 2001 Ushioda, 2001, cited in Dornyei, 2009). L2 Motivation started its journey from a purely psychological construct to educational construct. The L2 Motivation constructs are studies on three levels such as students/learners level, language level and learning situation level. The L2 Motivation is now being researched in relation with identity and self-sytem. CHAPTER3 Research Design and Methodology Research methodology The researchers have adopted quantitative research method in order to employ statistical analysis to address the different aspects of the research properly and thoroughly. Research Design The researchers have designed the research basing it on quantitative method of research for facilitating a comprehensive statistical and analytical research process. Population The population of this research is the users of English language in Pakistani universities. Sample The sample of this research is 100 master degree level students from The University of Punjab. Research Tools The researchers have used a self-administered questionnaire for the current study because it is the most common method of data collection in second language (L2 motivation). The popularity of questionnaires is due to the fact that they are easy to construct, extremely versatile, and uniquely capable of gathering a large amount of information quickly in a form that is readily process able (Dornyei, 2003 Rasinger, 2008). To record the responses of the participants, questionnaire is more focused, less time consuming and structured source (ibid, 2003). I preferred closed-ended questionnaire items because they are most frequent question types (Dornyei, 2003). The researchers provided respondents with ready-made response options to choose from and give an appropriate grade from 1 to 5. The major advantage of closed questions is that their coding and tabulation is straightforward. Dornyei (2003) states that the closed items are also referred as objective items. They are particularly suited for quantitative analyses. Rating scales are undoubtedly the most popular items in research questionnaire (Dornyei, 2003). They require the respondents to make an evaluative judgment of the target by marking one of a series of categories organized into scale. From categories of Likert, semantic differential and numeric rating scale, I preferred Likert scale (ibid, 2003) The researchers have used a Questionnaire (having 25 close-ended questions) to get statistical data from the members of the selected sample. In the questionnaire, Likert Scale was used including the following categories KeyStrongly DisagreeDisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly AgreeQuestion 112345Question 212345Question 312345Question 412345Question 512345 Data collection and Analysis 100 questionnaires have been used for the collection of data. Questionnaires were distributed by the researchers among the members of the sample and collected after they had been filled. Tabular charts and graphs are used for analytical presentation. Moreover, the details of the analysis have been discussed in detail in the written form and conclusions have been drawn. Data Presentation and Analysis The details of the analysis have been discussed in detail in the written form and conclusions have been drawn. Data collected from questionnaires has been analyzed by putting it in the statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) version 16. Then the data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Chapter4 Data analysis TABLE 4.1 Item1 I am learning English because it will open more job opportunities for me. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD44.04.04.0 D66.06.010.0 N1212.012.022.0 A5050.050.072.0 SA2828.028.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.1 shows that 78 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 12 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 10 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that greater job opportunities motivate the students to learn English language. TABLE 4.2 Item2 In my opinion, learning English will improve my personality and status. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD22.02.02.0 D22.02.04.0 N1212.012.016.0 A5757.057.073.0 SA2727.027.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.2 shows that 84 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 12 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 4 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the students consider learning English an improvement in their personality and status. TABLE 4.3 Item3 I think that English has become a status symbol in Pakistani society. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD55.05.05.0 D66.06.011.0 N1111.011.022.0 A4242.042.064.0 SA3636.036.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.3 shows that 78 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 11 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 11 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that English is considered to be a status symbol in Pakistan. TABLE 4.4 Item4 I am learning English for higher academic achievement. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD22.02.02.0 D22.02.04.0 N1616.016.020.0 A5050.050.070.0 SA3030.030.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.4 shows that 80 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 16 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 4 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that higher academic achievement motivates the students to learn English language. TABLE 4.5 Item5 Frankly, I need English just to pass the exam. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD88.08.08.0 D3838.038.046.0 N2323.023.069.0 A1919.019.088.0 SA1212.012.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.5 shows that only 31 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 23 of the respondents remained neutral. While 46 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that most of the respondents think that they need to learn English language for other reasons than passing exams also. TABLE 4.6 Item6 English should not be a compulsory subject in Pakistan. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD1717.017.017.0 D2626.026.043.0 N1616.016.059.0 A2828.028.087.0 SA1313.013.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.6 shows that 41 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 16 of the respondents remained neutral. While 43 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the respondents have a mixed opinion about whether to keep English as a compulsory subject or not. TABLE 4.7 Item7 I like English language. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD55.05.05.0 D88.08.013.0 N1717.017.030.0 A5050.050.080.0 SA2020.020.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.7 shows that 70 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 17 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 13 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that most of the students like have a liking for English language. TABLE 4.8 Item8 When I listen to someone speaking English, I wish I could speak like him. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD22.02.02.0 D1212.012.014.0 N1313.013.027.0 A4040.040.067.0 SA3333.033.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.8 shows that 73 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 13 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 14 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that most of the students wish to speak English. TABLE 4.9 Item9 If English were not a compulsory subject in Pakistan, I would still take English as an elective subject. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD1111.011.011.0 D1414.014.025.0 N2121.021.046.0 A3131.031.077.0 SA2323.023.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.9 shows that 54 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 21 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 25 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students would take English as an elective subject even if it were not a compulsory subject in Pakistan. TABLE 4.10 Item10 I consider learning English as a burden. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD1212.012.012.0 D4949.049.061.0 N2323.023.084.0 A1313.013.097.0 SA33.03.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.10 shows that 16 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 23 of the respondents remained neutral. While 61 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students do not consider learning English language a burden. TABLE 4.11 Item11 If I dont need English for my professional career then I dont like it. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD1313.013.013.0 D3535.035.048.0 N2020.020.068.0 A2020.020.088.0 SA1212.012.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.11 shows that 32 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 20 of the respondents remained neutral. While 48 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the respondents still have a liking for English language even if it is not required for their professional career. TABLE 4.12 Item12 Medium of instruction should be Urdu instead of English. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD99.09.09.0 D1313.013.022.0 N3030.030.052.0 A3333.033.085.0 SA1515.015.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.12 shows that 48 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 30 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 22 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students want Urdu to be the medium of instruction in Pakistan. TABLE 4.13 Item13 European women are freer as compared to Pakistani society. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD55.05.05.0 D66.06.011.0 N2626.026.037.0 A4646.046.083.0 SA1717.017.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.13 shows that 63 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 26 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 11 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the respondents consider European women to be freer than Pakistani women. TABLE 4.14 Item14 Usually Pakistani students follow the new hair-cut styles of Hollywood heroes. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD66.06.06.0 D1010.010.016.0 N2121.021.037.0 A4646.046.083.0 SA1717.017.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.14 shows that 63 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 21 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 16 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the respondents agree that Western hair styles are followed by students in Pakistan. TABLE 4.15 Item15 Pakistani society is backward because of its conservative views and its refusal to adopt European modern views in social and political matters. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD66.06.06.0 D1919.019.025.0 N1919.019.044.0 A4949.049.093.0 SA77.07.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.15 shows that 56 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 19 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 25 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students think that Pakistani social and political views are conservative and out-dated while Western social and political views are modern and acceptable. TABLE 4.16 Item16 I prefer desi (local) foods over western foods. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD55.05.05.0 D44.04.09.0 N1717.017.026.0 A3535.035.061.0 SA3939.039.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.16 shows that 74 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 17 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 9 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students prefer local foods over western foods. TABLE 4.17 Item17 I like to wear jeans and shirts. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD2121.021.021.0 D2222.022.043.0 N2525.025.068.0 A1515.015.083.0 SA1717.017.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.17 shows that 32 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 25 of the respondents remained neutral. While 43 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that there is mixed opinion of the students about wearing jeans and shirts in Pakistan. TABLE 4.18 Item18 I think that this is the time we start to adopt more liberal views in politics in Pakistan. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD1111.011.011.0 D1212.012.023.0 N2222.022.045.0 A4343.043.088.0 SA1212.012.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.18 shows that 55 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 22 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 23 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students think that our political views should be more liberal. TABLE 4.19 Item19 I think we should modify our old-fashioned legislations according to the modern European laws. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD1717.017.017.0 D1919.019.036.0 N2323.023.059.0 A3535.035.094.0 SA66.06.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.19 shows that 41 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 23 of the respondents remained neutral. While 36 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that there is a mixed opinion about whether our legislations should me modified according to western legislations or not. TABLE 4.20 Item20 Women should be given more freedom in our country as they have in European countries. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD1414.014.014.0 D1818.018.032.0 N2121.021.053.0 A3636.036.089.0 SA1111.011.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.20 shows that 47 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 21 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 32 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the respondents want more freedom for women in Pakistan as is the case in western countries. TABLE 4.21 Item21 Women should not be criticized for riding bikes. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD66.06.06.0 D1515.015.021.0 N1919.019.040.0 A3939.039.079.0 SA2121.021.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.21 shows that 60 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 19 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 21 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students want women to ride bikes in Pakistan. TABLE 4.22 Item22 Hijab restricts the progress of women by limiting their opportunities of making them prosperous as is proven by the progress of women in the western societies. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD2828.028.028.0 D1515.015.043.0 N1616.016.059.0 A3737.037.096.0 SA44.04.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.22 shows that 41 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 16 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 43 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that there is a mixed opinion of the students about whether hijab is a restriction for womens progress or not. TABLE 4.23 Item23 English plays a vital role to adopt western culture. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD33.03.03.0 D1212.012.015.0 N2525.025.040.0 A4141.041.081.0 SA1919.019.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.23 shows that 60 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 25 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 15 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students are of the view that English language influences Pakistani culture by bringing western culture with it. TABLE 4.24 Item24 I like English/European culture. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD1717.017.017.0 D3030.030.047.0 N2525.025.072.0 A2323.023.095.0 SA55.05.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.24 shows that 28 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 25 of the respondents remained neutral. While 47 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students claim to have no liking for the western culture. TABLE 4.25 Item25 English language learning will derail the students from Islamic identity. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValidSD66.06.06.0 D1717.017.023.0 N3131.031.054.0 A3333.033.087.0 SA1313.013.0100.0 Total100100.0100.0 Description of the table Table 4.25 shows that 46 of the respondents agreed with the statement and 31 of the respondents remained neutral. Only 23 of the respondents disagreed with the statement. Therefore, it reveals that the most of the students agree that learning English language will derail the students from Islamic identiy. Chapter5 Summary, Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations Summary Most of the students in the Pakistani universities seem to like English but claim to dislike English culture and base their liking for English language on their professional or educational needs. But this claim seems to be a fallacy as their life styles reflect a liking for English/European culture. This study was aimed to investigate whether the liking for English language has its origins in the liking for English culture that is integrative motivation or is it just based on the professional and educational needs of the students in Pakistan that is instrumental motivation. The researchers have analysed various social and psychological factors to find out the validity of the hypothesis that liking for English language is an outcome of liking for English culture. The researchers have tried to find the degree of awareness of the people of their own underlying psychological processes related to the said phenomenon.The researchers have also tried to find out the real motivation of the liking for English language and making it obvious to the people by discussing it explicitly. The researchers have delimited their research to the users of English language in Pakistani universities. The researchers have adopted quantitative research method in order to employ statistical analysis to address the different aspects of the research properly and thoroughly. The sample of this research was 100 master degree level students from The University of Punjab. The researchers have used a Questionnaire (having 25 close-ended questions) to get statistical data from the members of the selected sample. In the questionnaire, Likert Scale was used. Data collected from questionnaires has been analyzed by putting it in the statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) version 16. Then the data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Findings This study reveals that greater job opportunities motivate the students to learn English language. the students consider learning English as an improvement in their personality and status. English is considered to be a status symbol in Pakistan higher academic achievement motivates the students to learn English language. the most of the respondents think that they need to learn English language for other reasons than passing exams also. the respondents have a mixed opinion about whether to keep English as a compulsory subject or not. The most of the students have a liking for English language. The most of the students have a liking for English language. the most of the students wish to speak English. the most of the students would take English as an elective subject even if it were not a compulsory subject in Pakistan. the most of the students do not consider learning English language a burden. the most of the respondents still have a liking for English language even if it is not required for their professional career. the most of the students want Urdu to be the medium of instruction in Pakistan. the most of the respondents consider European women to be freer than Pakistani women. the most of the respondents agree that Western hair styles are followed by students in Pakistan. the most of the students think that Pakistani social and political views are conservative and out-dated while Western social and political views are modern and acceptable. the most of the students prefer local foods over western foods there is mixed opinion of the students about wearing jeans and shirts in Pakistan. the most of the students think that our political views should be more liberal. there is a mixed opinion about whether our legislations should me modified according to western legislations or not. the most of the respondents want more freedom for women in Pakistan as is the case in western countries. the most of the students want women to ride bikes in Pakistan it reveals that there is a mixed opinion of the students about whether hijab is a restriction for womens progress or not. the most of the students are of the view that English language influences Pakistani culture by bringing western culture with it. the most of the students claim to have no liking for the western culture. the most of the students agree that learning English language will derail the students from Islamic identity. Conclusion The study proves that there is a strong instrumental motivation in the students of Pakistani universities. The obvious reason is that English is the language of education in Pakistan. There are several institutes in Pakistan that use English as the language of educational instruction also. These institutes exist both at primary and secondary level. In addition to that, higher education is completely English medium. Moreover, English is the official language of Pakistan. So, the students have to learn English for a better education and a better professional career. Therefore, they have no choice but to learn English language as proficiently as they can. Nevertheless, this study has thrown light on the other side of the coin also, as the results prove that there is also a strong integrative motivation in the students. The results have shown that English language has influenced Pakistani culture negatively too. English has become a status symbol in Pakistan. Knowing English language has become synonymous with being educated in Pakistan. Students have started to think their own culture as old, conservative and out-dated. They have started to like western culture and want to modify their own culture according to the western culture. The study has also highlighted a psychologically hypocritical behavior amongst the students that they do not want to admit explicitly that they like western culture as they might consider that such a confession may lead them to face the criticism of the people. But they have a tacit liking for English culture which is reflected from their clothing, habits, hair-styles, ways of entertainment and political and social views about different issues. So, this study has proven that both integrative and instrumental motivations are working behind the learning of English language in Pakistan. Recommendations A similar study may be conducted using qualitative method and using interviews and observation sheets for further exploration of the facts in this particular dimension. A similar study may be conducted using mixed method approach for even better results by having more angles and research tools for better understanding of the phenomenon. The results of such studies may be used in modifying educational approaches in the future for better educational experience for the students. References Abbas, S. (1998) Sociopolitical Dimension in Language English in Context in Pakistan Applied Language Studies, Vol. 23, 42. Abbas, S. (1993) The Power of English Word Englishes. 12/2 147-156. Ary, Donald., Jacobs,L.C., Razavieh,A., Sorensen, C.(2006) Introduction to Research in Education, Belmont Thomson Wadsworth Inc. Barker, P. (1998) Interactivity as an Extrinsic Motivating force in Learning. In Beck, R. C. Motivation Theories and Principles. 5th ed. New Jersey Prentice Hall. 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(2010) EFL Annual Research Journal SALU Vol 12, pp. 75-91 91 Gardner, R.C. and Lambert, W.E., (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language learning. Rowley, Mass Newbury House. Gardner, R.C. and MacIntyre, P.D. (1993) A Students Contributions to Second Language Learning. Part II Affective Variables. Language Teaching 26, pp. 1-11. Katzner, K. (1977) The Languages of the World. London Routledge. Malik, F.J. (1996.8) The Teaching Of English In Pakistan. Lahore Vanguard Books Pvt Ltd. Pathan, H. (2009) Motivation for learning English A study of Engineering students in Mehran University Pakistan. Unpublished dissertation at University of Glasgow, UK. Rahman, T. (2003) Language Policy, Multilingualism, and Language Vitality in Pakistan. Trends in Linguistics, 175 73-106. Available at www.sil.org/asia/ldc/parallel_papers/tariq_rahman.pdf Y, dXiJ(x(I_TS1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9
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