Nowadays, Malaysian worker’s need satisfaction and motivation in their working area and that one of the factor may lead to the teaching and learning process become successful. According to the authors this issue altogether with three aspects which is individual, organization and their social. To ensure the educational purpose meet their objectives and goals, the employee especially in educational institution they qualify to have their own right during their working environment, independence in term of what kind of task that they doing and will satisfied with their job. From that, as a student we should respect the academic staff especially lecturer that always speared the information and knowledge to reached their goal. Decision making is one of the responsibility in organizational that staff should considered. Recently the ability to assess right for any sense for academic staff and they involved in decision making in their organization such as university is a first priority should be taken.
This autonomy leads their workers to improved dear self from time to time in term of profession, responsibility and corporation in working area. In late of 90s, academic staff need to participated to make decision in term of class environment and their working area as well. By doing this effective decision, it can give the positive impact to their university such as students and lecturer performance. Decision-making process is general job that need to take serious in organization of institution. Today, educational setting has been improved their strategy which is to add decision-making skill to teach in school or university. To be specific, the university management and decision style is the one of the factor that could affect the job satisfaction either for academic staff and lecturer. For example, job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in teaching environment is regarding to hygiene and motivators theory.
But, the participation of staff in the policy of decision making process are limited. They also unhappiness with University management as well as decision-making style. According to Rowe’s decision style, it help human to thinking, reasoning, understanding, learning and remembering, which mean how they deal and solve their problem or any limitation in their daily life. Besides, referred to Herzberg’s that consist of two which is motivators and hygiene factors help individuals to behave dear self in any working situation. Means that, this factors could encourage employees’ run smoothly and well-being.
When come to management style is was consequently refer to top management in organization which is manager. As a manager she/he should be a good leader and have the ability to use appropriate knowledge and information while working with people because she/he have to interact and deal with many people day-to-day. According to Likert’s theory, there consists of four descriptions of the management styles. Firstly, is exploitive authoritative system which is this management system encourage only manager or top management in the organization can make decision making. Staff or follower were did not have any right to involve in any decision because their responsibility are to complete their job or task on time. Second description based on Likert’s theory is benevolent authoritative system. This system design for top officer in the management make decision but their worker have right to involve in term of to give their opinion in round table especially without any fear and their management have to considered anything that their worker trying to explain. Next is Consultative system which is workers’ participation is allowed to involve in any decision making in their organization but after all only top management can make decision. Last but not least of management description based on Likert’s theory is participative system. This system design to good relationship and communication between management and employees in participation in decision-making process.
Besides that, in working environment of course we have face many problem and limitation regarding to our job and task. But, as a professional we must have decision-making style means that from that we can overcome any obstacle happen by use appropriate information to produce the decision. According to Rowe’s theory, there are four decision-making style that we can refer to make a decision. Firstly, is directive which is clear decision-making style. Second is analytic, means that all the decision making have to be perfect and systematic. Thirdly is, conceptual decision-making style. This style encourages people to think out of the box which generate new idea as well. Last is behavioral which mean good communication between top management and their workers lead to successful organization. In fact, decision-making style give big effect and impacts on academic staff either from public or non-public organization job satisfaction where it can positive or negative as well.
In working environment, job satisfaction showed that employees satisfaction with their salary, working environment and many more. It has defined as the management in the institution they have to respect their employee feeling, idea, job or career. From that they will satisfied with their job and can improve their job performance time-to-time. Means that, this satisfaction also links to their emotional feeling and positive response toward their job. According to the study in public universities in Malaysia, academic staff had a moderate level in their job satisfaction. In term of employee’s salary also one of factor that could lead to job satisfaction in academic institution especially. For example, teachers are never satisfied with their job because this job position have the highest level of work stress. But, in term of student’s achievement and their excellent result are the greatest satisfaction among teachers.
In other country, Europe for example their people were satisfied if they have higher rank workers compared to the lower ranks workers. In Ireland, student’s behavior and discipline as well as parents’ involve in teaching and learning process were cause their teachers stress. Besides that, in Cyprus academic staff and the teachers love to working with children because their student behavioral and well-being. Last but not least, in Scotland five factors that could lead to job satisfaction is good relationship between colleagues, people especially parents respect their profession as teachers and the relationship between students and teachers in teaching and learning area. Other than that, teachers need to have their private life, reasonable salary according to their stress work, performance, experience and their qualification. On the other hand, almost country in the world stated that salary had a serious effect on their level of job satisfaction.
Discussion and Conclusion
The mastery of decision-making style is a priority in Malaysia because it can be a good reason to solve and control any situation happen today, now or even in the future. Government concerned about their people especially university student because excellence performance and result by students could improve the university ranking. In addition, public and private university in Malaysia has guided and supported by government to ensure their teaching and learning environment include material and equipment in a good condition such as government always upgraded and updated that things to the higher institutional system and all that give impact and affect in decision-making style. By any reason, university management and government have to think out of the box, logic or rational in whatever decision that they have to decide, if does not dominance in decision-making style it can cause the dissatisfaction among student and academic staff such as lecturer because university management being a role model in particular institution.
Means that, University management and academic staffs and students must have a good communication with each other. In facts decision-making style can produce a quality academic staff especially lecturer and student because if management using this style, they never left their academic staff solve their own decision. They will have guided them, detailed in any situation and decision and supported their staff. In fact, top management especially should their manager or leaders should extra dominance in decision-making style because success or failure the organization or institution are come from their leader performance, personality, discipline and she/he communication with her/his staff. Therefore, ministry considered the involvement of the academic staff in decision-making process at the top level of management so that they can feel a part of the higher management.
Besides that, university management should allow the decision to be debated openly and transparently and allow the academic staff as academically speaking to speak openly and honestly regarding to the management or any topic that they trying to figure out for the benefit of the university and the staff as whole. From that, academic staff as well lecturer and teacher are forced to improve their abilities and capabilities in teaching. Thus, today many challenges facing educational such as parent dissatisfaction with their profession in teaching, lack of technology cause of budgeting and the management put high expectation to them to teaching student. To educate students, this could pressure lecturer and teacher because different student has different behavior, discipline and desire of them to learn and focus in class or in teaching environment. When pressure lecturer and teacher sometime cannot think rationally and all of this cause of lack in decision-making style or process.
Other than that, good management and decision-making decision of university management in Malaysia give the positive impact to academic staff and consequently satisfaction with their job as well. To seek for a good way, good communication and friendly environment is needed between the management and academic staff. In facts, hygiene factors should be taken seriously such as the relationship between leader and their staff, staff will be secure when they are in the working area and academic staff performance. According to Malaysians reports, Malaysian had a moderate level of job satisfaction in some universities. So ministry with combination of university management have to figure out factor that cause of this level. Furthermore, hygiene factor as a perfect component in helping organization to figure out their staff perfection and feeling on their working environment, decision-making and job satisfaction.
In term of salary, workload and status were placed in the first ranked as the leading factor for job satisfaction. It was proven especially in Asia, Africa and as well as in USA. In Malaysia, research found that Malaysians people using Rowe’s theory for their decision making style, Likert’s theory as management style theory in school and university context and they using Herzberg’s theory of job satisfaction that conducted in schools and universities. In addition, the participation among academic staff has become a major concern in Malaysia and as a request from academic staff especially lecturers and teachers request that u university management and school have to take seriously in term of hygiene factor issue that related to their salary, management in the organization or institution, policy, security, relationship or good communication with their staff and etc. Last but not least, university management style has affected job satisfaction among academic staff through the university decision-making style. From that, university management have to careful when they make decision.