Aristole was the first person who describe the justice according to him justice include allocation of resources to the people. Later in 1686s lockes write book which relates to human right and hobbies. With the passage of time some different arise in this approach and this approach most relate to the normative idea.
No one focus on the fairness of the allocation of resource in the workplace. in 20th century some development start in psychological process and concentration divert to understand the perception of the people related to fairness in org. through this development many theories come such as balance theory in 1958, cognitive dissonance in 1957, psychological reactance in 1966 and frustration-aggression hypothesis in 1939.
Perception of employees is different in working life. Every employee wants they are treated Fairley like pay working environment, management behavior towards employees.
(Homans in 1901, Adams 1963, Deutsch 1975, Leventhal 1976) briefly explain in his books about the distributive justice. (Thibout and walker 1975 Leventhal 1980) describe procedural justice and (Bies and Moag 1986 Greebberh 1993) emphasizes justice.
In 2011 (fatiman, Amiraa and Halim) define org justice. Org justice describe the employee’s perception regarding org justice and show reaction towards such perception, bad justice not only reduce job satisfaction but also reduce quality of work and cooperation among work, increase biasness among worker.
The history of org justice divides into three parts first one is distributive justice which start in 1950s to 1970s which is mostly concern with allocation of resources. Now the second one which is called procedural justice. Research on it start on 1970s to 1990s and the last one is interactional justice which began in mid 1980s and continued till today.
Distributive justice. Most of researcher, authors, scholars work on distributive justice but now a day this is very unreal that employees are treated equally by the employees like some people enjoy promotion very earlier and other even work hard but not get promotion. Procedural justice in 1960s to 1970s every one focused on distributive justice but now researcher focusing on procedural justice. In 1974 Blau explain that acceptable rule and procedure are necessary b/w employees and org. As in 1976 Leventhal says employees not concerned with distributive but all the information that guide to it. In 1975 Deeutsch explain that clarity in procedure is an important source of fairness in social relation. In 1980 Leventhal criticize the equity theory that equity theory fails to explain the procedural justice. Interactional justice. The concept of interactional justice introduces by the Bies in 1986. Interactional justice examines the interpersonal relation, communication procedure and it’s very important to explain that interaction justice is separate from procedural justice. (1)
Organization commitment in 20th century basically focused on how to increase employee’s productivity through using Taylor’s scientific management theory. It manager applies Taylor’s theory so they get productivity and consumption but some negative side effect must occur in shape of create high stress level and massive employees turnover because employee observed that normal conditions and objects are not filling wall. In 1970s org commitment become very popular specially in USA. In 1974 porter describe that the psychological attachment of and employee in relation to his identity and attachment in the org. another perception on org commitment is the set bet theory which presented by Becker in 1960s. individual committed to the org until and unless they left their position irrespective in stressful environment they experience. In 1984 Mayes and Allen divided org commitment into two parts one is Affective and second is continuous. Affective commitment is the positive feeling to become member, attachment and involvement with the org. continuous commitment, in which individual feel that ones he lost his position so he never gets this position again in future. With the passage of time Meyer and Allen include third dimension which is normative commitment. In normative commitment employee feeling of obligation with the organization. (2)
Employee empowerment is giving some level of employee freedom and responsibility for taking decision according their specific org goals. Empowerment is a powerful management tool, which management use for exchange of share vision that the org wants to materialized into common goal.
According to Randolph.
employee empowerment is transferable authority from employer to employees.
According to Blanchard.
Empowerment is not the name of freedom to act but also assigning high level of responsibility and accountability.
It indicates that org empower their employee so they become motivated, committed, satisfied with their work given full performance to the org. (3)
Employee empowerment creates of creative working environment where an employee has power to make his own decision in specific work related environment. Its depend on employee how to deal with work in critical situation whether decision is small or big.
The main purpose behind employee empowerment is to increase employees working ability, responsibility, boost up employee morale. When an employee feels that they work freely with any restriction so he will be more productive, loyal, productive. (4)
1: “Evolution of the concept of org justice”, publisher by Asia pacific journal of research, researcher anu singh lather in Dwarka, July 2015 in India.
2: A framework for the development of org commitment using action learning, researcher vijay Krishna and Michael j. marquardt, the George Washington university in USA.
3: “Employee empowerment-An empirical study” Mr. P. jaya kumar ; DR. A. Anada kumar in India in 2017.
4: “The impact of employee empowerment on job satisfaction” publish by USA – journal researcher Amir Abaon Elnage, Amen Imran. In Saudi – Arabia in 2014