Eco-Efficiency: Australia – Practice before 2000

Table of Contents
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ..…….1
Introduction …..………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………1
Literature Review ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………..2
3.1 Integration …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …….2
3.2 Method …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…3
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………..6
References………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………6

Abstract
In this assignment, I underline how to bring efficient eco-efficiency in metal production using different approaches and methods to bring sustainable development.

Introduction
Over the decades, as continents and countries around the globe began to develop, it became the evidence that, the industrialization and development come with environmental degradation. Eco-efficiency has been proposed as one of the main tools bring a transformation from unsustainable development to sustainable development. Here, Eco-efficiency is a term of an efficiency. The term ‘Eco’ means the both economic and ecological. The concept of this term is creating more goods and services by using not as many resources and with less waste and pollution.
Eco-efficiency can be defined as below:
“Eco-efficiency is achieved by the delivery of competitively priced goods/services that satisfy human needs and bring a quality of life, while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity throughout the life cycle, to a level at least in line with the Earth’s carrying capacity.” (WBCSD, 1992)
Eco-efficiency is a ratio of an output divided by the input (WBCSD, 1992).
Eco-efficiency = Outputs/Inputs
Implementation of eco-efficiency concept provides businesses with a greater understanding of their actions and impressions as eco-efficiency involves the development of environmental, organisational and financial outlines. In addition to this, businesses expanding on eco-efficiency principles are more moneymaking and competitive as they consume fewer virgin resources, water and energy, produce less waste and pollution, advanced production methods, develop new products and recycle existing materials (Srinivas, 2018).
The key features of eco-efficiency are (Srinivas, 2018):
Saving of energy, water and virgin material use
Decrease waste and pollution levels
Postponement of function and therefore product/service life
Combination of life cycle principles
Better service intensity
Eco-efficiency measures essential integration into management and environmental plans, policies and strategies. Measurement of eco-efficiency movements is essential to determine success, prioritise actions and issues, identify and track trends and ascertain areas of improvement. Reporting both internally and externally is also vital to communicate progress and complications, form shareholder and consumer confidence and report the regulators. Reporting can be united into current reporting and communication tools (Srinivas, 2018).

Literature Review
Integration:
The concept of prevention is connected with overall resource efficiency, or eco-efficiency, a complementary element of the business agenda for sustainable development (Holliday et al., 2002).
Five Winds International projected a materials specific EE model (FWI, 2001). It enclosed distinct EE strategies for different types of materials based on their structure:

• For wood/paper (with cellular material structures) the chief strategy is to maintain the integrity of the living resource stock. This might be called resource eco-efficiency or natural resource stewardship.
• For metals (with elemental material structures) the prime strategy is to maximize the usefulness of the metal element. Value creation from the material stock should be maximized through the use and reuse of each atom. This might be called materials eco-efficiency or material stewardship.
• For plastics (with molecular material structures) the key strategy is to maximize the value of the product, taking benefit of the versatility offered by plastics in their application in different product cycles. This might be called product eco-efficiency or product stewardship.

Materials, resource and product EE must be complemented with process eco-efficiency. This targets to reduce waste generation and resource consumption from production processes (FWI, 2001). Although the difference between material categories and their related environmental priorities is genuine, it does not prove that EE is basically different when applied to materials, resources or products (van Berkel and Narayanaswamy, 2004).

Method:

CP targets at creating more efficient use of natural resources and reducing the generation of wastes and emissions at the source. This is generally accomplished by the implementation of any of five generic ‘prevention practices’: product modification; input substitution; technology modification; good housekeeping and (on site) recycling and reuse (de Hoo et al., 1991; USEPA, 1988; van Berkel, 1996, 2007a).
EE perhaps has been well-defined with principal reference to the manufacturing, trade and services sectors, as demonstrated by its frequently used seven dimensions: reduction of the material intensity of goods and services; reduction of the energy intensity of goods and services; reduction of toxic dispersion; enhancement of materials recyclability; maximum sustainable use of renewable resources; extension of product durability; and maximum service intensity of products (van Berkel, 2007a; WBCSD, 2000b). To simplify its better consideration and acceptance, these seven elements can be modified to practical themes minerals processors and metal producers can chase. EE is then understood to aim for five specific ‘resource productivity themes’: Effective resource utilization and materials efficiency, Reduction of process waste and enhancement of co-product values, Reduction of water use and impacts, Reduction of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, Improvement of control of minor elements and toxic materials (van Berkel, 2006a; van Berkel and Narayanaswamy, 2005).

The following figure shows the implementation method for continuous improvement of existing processing plants as well as for integration in project delivery cycle.

Fig.1: Operational eco-efficiency framework for Metal Production
(van Berkel, 2006a)

The operational methods target to improve the environmental and economic performance of present mines and processing plants. They provide a means for the identification, valuation and implementation of EE prospects. Numerous methods have been offered, which can be largely considered under three different approaches, respectively (USEPA, 2001; van Berkel, 2002):
1. Engineering approach: this traditional approach to EE implementation is planned around engineering evaluations of production processes, generally denoted to as “opportunity assessments”. Each opportunity assessment attentions on a specific feature of the operation, either a set of unit operations or a specific waste or emission problem, and advances, and when found feasible, implements a set of opportunities by which the eco-efficiency of that aspect of the operation is enriched.
2. Management systems approach: this approach has developed since the formation of international environmental management systems standards, most particularly ISO 14001, but also other industry specific codes such as Responsible Care. The idea is to implant the identification, evaluation and implementation of EE opportunities in present management systems, rather than project manage opportunity assessments on an ad hoc basis.
In doing so, the environmental management system is used to bring environmental performance through EE in preference of other environmental technologies (such as end-of-pipe treatment or remediation).
3. Quality management approach: this approach targets to make EE a guiding ethos for the whole organization rather than something the environmental or engineering department does (as is often the case with respectively the environmental management systems approach and the engineering approach). It figures upon total quality management and total productivity management models, and fundamentally adds EE as a new attribute for the quality the organization sets out to deliver.
A project EE analysis is principally marked on to the routine project reviews, which usually accord with major “go”/”no go” decisions for the project.

Fig.2: Project eco-efficiency review as a part of project realization cycle
(van Berkel and Narayanaswamy, 2005)

The EE review attends to progressively review how EE issues have been addressed and aims attained (retrospectively, i.e. looking back on the outcome of the project realization cycle so far) as well as identify additional EE opportunities that can be further chased (prospectively, i.e. looking forward to the next stages in the project realization cycle). This can in standard be accomplished with a three-component EE review, comprising (van Berkel and Narayanaswamy, 2005):
1. Project performance assessment: an assessment of the degree to which the project as it progresses through its realization cycle is able to attain EE targets (retrospective).
2. Design inclusiveness review: a review of the extent to which generic EE options have been considered and merged in the project, as it progresses through its realization cycle (retrospective).
3. Design opportunity identification: identifying potential EE options that should be considered in the further understanding of the project (prospective).

Conclusion

So, it can be conclude as, eco-efficiency is an important milestone on the sustainable development journey for primary metals production and the use of operational methods, eco-efficiency can be increased significantly which will be beneficial, ecologically and economically.

References
de Hoo S, Brezet H, Crul M, Dieleman H. Manual for the prevention of waste and emissions. In: Crul M, editor. PREPARE Manual and Experiences. The Hague, The Netherlands: Ministry of Economic Affairs (for Euro Environ); 1991. p. 84.
FWI. Eco-efficiency and materials: foundation paper. Ottawa, Canada: International Council on Metals and Environment; 2001.

Holliday C, Schmidheiny S, Watts P. Walking the Talk: the business case for sustainable development. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing; 2002.

Srinivas, H. (2018). Sustainability Concepts: Eco-efficiency. online Gdrc.org. Available at: https://www.gdrc.org/sustdev/concepts/04-e-effi.html Accessed 25 Aug. 2018.

USEPA. Waste minimization opportunity assessment manual. Cincinnatti, OH, USA: United States Environmental Protection Agency; 1988. p. 26.

USEPA. An organizational guide to pollution prevention. Cincinnati, OH, USA: United States Environmental Protection Agency; 2001.

van Berkel C. Cleaner production in practice: methodology development for environmental improvement of industrial production and evaluation of practical experiences. In: IVAM Environmental Research. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam; 1996. p. 308.

van Berkel R. Application of cleaner production principles and tools for eco-efficient minerals processing. In: Proceedings of the international conference on the sustainable processing of minerals and metals, green processing 2002; 2002.

van Berkel R. Eco-efficiency in the Australian minerals processing sector. J Cleaner Product 2006a; 15(8/9):772–81.

van Berkel, R. (2007). Eco-efficiency in primary metals production: Context, perspectives and methods. online sciencedirect. Available at: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/46275372/Eco-efficiency_in_primary_metals_product20160606-20616-1wmv4jv.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1535166714&Signature=JfWTIbEAhw%2F0xb1Pm3R3Pgi%2Fje4%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DEco-efficiency_in_primary_metals_product.pdf Accessed 25 Aug. 2018.

van Berkel R. Cleaner production and eco-efficiency. In: Marinova D, Annandale D, Phillimore J, editors. The international handbook of environmental technology management. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publications; 2007a. p. 67–93.

van Berkel R, Narayanaswamy V. Sustainability as a framework for innovation in minerals processing. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on the sustainable processing of minerals, green processing 2004; 2004.

van Berkel R, Narayanaswamy V. Eco-efficiency for design and operation of minerals processing plants. In: Proceedings of the CHEMECA 2005. Brisbane: Institute for Chemical Engineering Australia; 2005.

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), Geneva, Switzerland, 1992.

WBCSD. Eco-efficiency: creating more value with less impact. Geneva, Switzerland: World Business Council for Sustainable Development; 2000b. p. 32.

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