E-GOVERMENT SYSTEM DESIGN AND SERVICE DELIVERY: A CASE STUDY OF IREMBO, RWANDA
EPHREM TUYISENGE
MIT/0063/13
Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of the Award of Master of Science in Information Technology (MSCIT) of
Mount Kenya University
MAY 2018
DECLARATIONThis proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other University or for any other award.

Student Names: Ephrem TUYISENGE
RegNo: MIT/0063/13
Sign……………………………Date………………………………………
We confirm that the work reported in this proposal was carried out by a candidate under my supervision.

Supervisor 1:
Name: Prof. Raymond WAFULA ONGUS
Sign…………………………………Date………………………………….

Supervisor 2:
Name: Morris GITONGA
Sign…………………………………Date………………………………….

DEDICATIONThis research is dedicated to my lovely wife MUKANIYONGOMA Clotilde for her love, My daughter ISIMBI Olga for their support and sacrifice that they underwent for me to complete this work.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTGrateful acknowledgement is made to the following individuals and organizations for their contribution to the success of this work.

I express our sincere gratitude to Mr. Morris GITONGA and Prof. Raymond WAFULA ONGUS for having accepted to supervise this project despite their enormous responsibilities. Their guidance and a great number of counseling they provided me contributed to the successful completion of this work.

I am also very grateful to my wife who deserves praise for the pain and sacrifices endured during my education.

Our thanks are also expressed to the Government of Kenya, the Mount Kenya University, especially the department of Information Technology that availed us skills for their support to make this work success.

Finally, I express my gratitude to each one who directly and indirectly contributed to make this research fruitful. MAY GOD BLESS YOU ALL!
ABSTRACTThe Government of Rwanda has heavily invested much in the Information Communication Technology and the arrival of e-government fostered digitalization in the service delivery of most government services. The general objectives of this study will be on the relationship between e-government system design and service delivery. It will thus help to understand the effectiveness and importance of design of e-government systems on service delivery. The objectives include; to investigate on the design features of Irembo; to investigate on the quality of service delivery by Irembo, and to establish the relationship between e-government system design and service delivery. This research being descriptive and analytical will use interviews and questionnaires to collect data. The target population for this study is 488 managers and users of Irembo and the sample size will be 220 using Slovin’s Formula. After collecting data, the interpretation will be done using statistics such as graphs, frequency tables, weighted means, standard deviation and percentage and this by the use of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS V20).
TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc515640156 h iiDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc515640157 h iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc515640158 h ivABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc515640159 h vTABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc515640160 h viLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc515640161 h xACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS PAGEREF _Toc515640162 h xiDEFINITION OF KEY TERMS PAGEREF _Toc515640163 h xiiiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc515640164 h 11.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515640165 h 11.1Background of the study PAGEREF _Toc515640166 h 11.2Statement of the problem PAGEREF _Toc515640167 h 41.3 Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc515640168 h 51.3.1 General objectives PAGEREF _Toc515640169 h 51.3.2 Objectives PAGEREF _Toc515640170 h 51.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc515640171 h 51.5 Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc515640172 h 61.6 Limitations of the study PAGEREF _Toc515640173 h 61.7 Scope of the study PAGEREF _Toc515640174 h 61.7.1 Content scope PAGEREF _Toc515640175 h 61.7.2 Geographical scope PAGEREF _Toc515640176 h 71.7.3 Time scope PAGEREF _Toc515640177 h 71.8 Organization of the study PAGEREF _Toc515640178 h 7CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc515640179 h 82.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515640180 h 82.1 Theoretical literature PAGEREF _Toc515640181 h 82.2Empirical literature review PAGEREF _Toc515640182 h 282.3 Critical review and research gap identification PAGEREF _Toc515640183 h 342.4Theoretical framework PAGEREF _Toc515640184 h 352.5 Conceptual framework PAGEREF _Toc515640185 h 362.6 Summary PAGEREF _Toc515640186 h 38CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc515640187 h 393.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515640188 h 393.1 Research design PAGEREF _Toc515640189 h 393.2 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc515640190 h 393.3 Sample Design PAGEREF _Toc515640191 h 403.5 Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc515640192 h 413.5.1 Data Collection Procedures PAGEREF _Toc515640193 h 413.5.2 Reliability and Validity PAGEREF _Toc515640194 h 423.6 Data Analysis Procedure PAGEREF _Toc515640195 h 423.7 Method of Data Analysis of Each Objective PAGEREF _Toc515640196 h 433.8 Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc515640197 h 43REFERENCES: PAGEREF _Toc515640198 h 44APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc515640199 h 48APPENDIX I. Letter to the Respondents PAGEREF _Toc515640200 h 48SECTION I: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR IREMBO E-GOVERNMENT STAFF PAGEREF _Toc515640201 h 49APPENDIX III: RESEARCH TIMELINE/2017 PAGEREF _Toc515640202 h 52APPENDIX IV. RESEARCH BUDGET PAGEREF _Toc515640203 h 53

LISTOF TABLES TOC h z c “Table 3.” Table 3. 1Sample Size determination for strata PAGEREF _Toc513288734 h 40

LIST OF FIGURES TOC h z c “Figure 2.” Figure 2. 1 Integral components of E-government PAGEREF _Toc513288711 h 10Figure 2. 2 Irembo Home page PAGEREF _Toc513288712 h 23Figure 2. 3 Irembo Main menu PAGEREF _Toc513288713 h 24Figure 2. 4 Local Government menu expanded PAGEREF _Toc513288714 h 24Figure 2. 5 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc513288715 h 37

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSAML:Anti-Money Laundering
BNR:Bank Nationale du Rwanda
C2C:Customer toCustomer
CFT:Combating the Finance of Terrorism
EBM:Electronic Business Machine
ESW:Electronic Single Window
E-Tax:Electronic Tax
FMIS:Financial Management Information System
GPRS:General Packet Radio Service
GSM:Global System for Mobile Communication
ICT:Information Communication Technology
IFC:International Fund Corporation
ISIC:Internet Standard for Industrial Classification
ISP:Internet Service Provider
IT:Information Technology
KYC:Know Your Customer
MMS:Multimedia Messaging Service
MMS:Multimedia Messaging Service
MNO:Mobile Network Operator
M-payment:Mobile payment
M-Pesa:Mobile Pesa
MTN:Mobile Telephone Network
NISR:National Institute of Statistics
OTA:Over-the-air programming
RDB: Rwanda Development Board
SIM:Subscriber Identity Module
SIM:Subscriber Identity Module
SMS:Short Message Service
TAM:Technology Acceptance Model
TIN:Taxpayer Identification Number 
USD:United States Dollar
USSD:Unstructured Supplementary Services Delivery
VAT:Value Added Tax
WAP:Wireless Application Protocol
WWW:World Wide Web
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMSData: Individual facts collected together for analysis
Information: Data and fact acquired and learned through a study, experience or form of someone.

Mobile payments: These are payments done through or using mobile or handheld devices
Service delivery: the manner in which services can be taken to the people or users
E-government: Electronic government (or e-government) essentially refers to “utilization of Information Technology (IT), Information and Communication Technologies (ICT s), and other web-based telecommunication technologies to improve and/or enhance on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery in the public sector.”
Service Quality: An assessment of how well a delivered service conforms to the client’s expectations.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.0 IntroductionThis chapter presents the background of the study, problem statement, objectives, research question, significance, scope, limitation and organization of the study.

Background of the studyInformation and communication technologies (ICTs) are pervasive across the globe and are not only changing the daily lives of people but also affecting the characteristics of the interaction between governments and their citizens (Akman, et al, 2005). These changes, in turn, are rapidly being transformed into new forms of government, namely e-government. The adoption of ICTs, e-commerce, and e-business in the commercial sectors, as well as the diffusion of the internet among the general population have led to rising levels of comfort and familiarity with the technologies in many contexts, for example, (communicating with people, electronic marketing and academic activities). This increased expectations of citizens that the public sector organization will provide services similar to those in the commercial sector with the same level of agility, effectiveness and efficiency (Ebrahim & Iran, 2005).
The e-government represents more than a diffusion of some technology in the public sector, but rather has emerged as a discipline concerned with the online provision of public services and exchange of information and services, facilitating interactive, collaborative and participatory engagement of citizens, businesses, employees and government agencies (Almarabeh and AbuAli, 2010; Wu, 2007; The World Bank, 2003). This allows government departments to network and integrate their services using information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the aim is to provide efficient government management of information, better service delivery to citizens and empower people through participation in public decision making (UN, 2005).

It is evident that e-government involves using ICTs to enhance service delivery to its stakeholders with considerable improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of public service (Bhatnagar, 2003; Weerakkody et al, 2007 Heeks, 2003). However, implementing e-government in developing countries is still a novel phenomenon (Ebrahim & Irani, 2005) where a number of countries are still developing ICT infrastructure platforms and with others still at the initial phases of articulating e-government vision such as drawing ICT policies to act as an e-government enabler (Bwalya, 2010; Abu Ali, 2010).

In support of the perception that e-government is still at preliminary phases in developing countries (Sein, 2011) expounding on the literature (Heeks, 2000; Mukerji, 2008; UNCTAD, 2008), it is revealed that problems faced by developing countries are; access and use of e-government services by citizens; low literacy, where even amongst the literate resources are limiting; information access and information literacy is another constraint. Accordingly, higher percentages of population reside in non urban areas and e-government is largely not accessible to the majority of the people in developing countries (Ngulubane, 2007; Sein, 2011; Heeks, 2000). This picture suggests that the use of ICTs in providing public services is not a single solution for developing countries. However, the fundamental aspect of e-government is that it must deliver public information and services in ways that citizens want them using internet and other ICTs as leverages. This should have direct impact on the effectiveness of public services and governments’ continuous contacts with citizens, especially those living in remote areas.
It is posited that in the traditional government concept, a government exists to serve the interest of the people (Kolsaker ; Lee-Kelley, 2006) similarly e-government exists to primarily benefit the citizen-stakeholders. In order to successfully implement e-government in developing countries, it is imperative to understand the role of government entities, citizens’ needs, priorities, challenges and peculiarities.

The traditional model of government is increasingly becoming less efficient (Sharifi and Zarei, 2004), as the emerging vast networks in interacting public, private and voluntary organisations could no longer be served effectively using the traditional setups of a single administration for single services and specific functions. This has propelled the need for e-based technologies to augment the traditional public sector administrations. It is against this background that e-government as the new business and governance model in the public sector, has attracted the attention of political leaders and statesmen around the world. The advent of technological revolution of the late 1990s which enabled delivery of services over the internet caused a major and rapid transformation of governments’ functioning around the globe (Wimmer, 2002; Hwang et al, 1999).
In developed countries, the services are increasingly offered in a self-service mode through internet portals that become a single point of interaction for the citizens to receive services from a larger number of departments (Bhatnagar, 2003). For example, countries such as Canada, Singapore and New Zealand are among the top twenty e-government leading countries (UN, 2005). In Singapore, citizens can pay parking tickets, job seekers can search for employment and public trustees can file an application for estate administration using opportunities provided by e-government (Ngulubane, 2007). In Finland, the e-government strategy raises Internet-based services and tools as an important vehicle for increasing democracy, validating the quality of decisions and for promoting acceptability of decisions, regulations and political processes.
As for developing countries, they have peculiar issues different from developed countries and these issues can have great impact on the success of e-government projects.

The government through Rwanda Development Board (RDB) developed a fee-based e-government platform through which all government services are provided. The system titled Irembo aims at transforming government service delivery, increase access to information and foster transparency by use of internet and mobile devices ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://irembo.gov.rw/rolportal/web/rol/eservice-by-category”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “3”, “9” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Republic of Rwanda”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “e-services”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “Services”, “title” : “IREMBO”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=db7efd5d-9e19-34ba-a48c-886dc5bfb746” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Republic of Rwanda, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Republic of Rwanda, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Republic of Rwanda, 2018)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Republic of Rwanda, 2018). The Irembo is the one-stop portal for e-Government services with a role as a platform for the provision of Government services online with ease, efficiency and reliability ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/read/195331/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “3”, “9” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bizimungu”, “given” : “Julius”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The New Times”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “News”, “title” : “Mobile apps to ease public service delivery – The New Times | Rwanda”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d286918b-5973-3558-958e-3cae54278ab3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bizimungu, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bizimungu, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bizimungu, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bizimungu, 2015). It has its contents organized in such a way that content can be searched by topic, by ministry, by name or popularity. The system ensures security in that the user has to login and out meaning that they should have opened an account with Irembo to access and use it. The Irembo can be used on both computers and mobile devices connected to internet to search a list of services offered by the different government ministries in Rwanda in both Kinyarwanda the local language, French and English.
Statement of the problemPoor service delivery at the grassroots was found to affect good governance in Rwanda in RGB report carried out in five districts of Gasabo, Gicumbi, Kamonyi, Nyagatare, and Rusizi ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “IPAR”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “number-of-pages” : “0-16”, “publisher-place” : “Kigali”, “title” : “Poor service delivery in Rwanda endangers the realization of vision 2020 .”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=25abae67-b7a8-4906-a72c-44343ac2af33” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(IPAR, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(IPAR, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(IPAR, 2010)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(IPAR, 2010). As per EDPRS II, the level of satisfaction on service delivery was set at 85% by 2018. Yet, researches indicate that the level of service delivery still scores low as compared with other indicators (72.93% – RGS2016) and (67.7% – CRC2016) . Though ICT is a strategy for the achievement of vision 2020 and overall improvement in service delivery, the penetration of ICT connectivity has remained a challenge. This makes manual services still to be preferred by most government institutions which challenges the service delivery promises. The use of mobile systems has proven significant in some countries and Rwanda in particular is a case in study in Africa on how Irembo is impacting service delivery.
However there is no study that has empirically related irembo to improved service delivery or at least gave recommendations on how it would be improved. This study aims at exploring the design attributes of irembo that make it an ideal for improved service delivery.

1.3 Specific Objectives of the Study1.3.1 General ObjectivesThe objective of the study is to investigate on the relationship between e-government system design and service delivery. The case study will be irembo
1.3.2 ObjectivesTo investigate on the design features of e-government system
To investigate on the quality of service delivery by e-government system
To establish the relationship between e-government system design and service delivery
1.4 Research QuestionsWhat are the design features of e-government system?
 What the quality of service delivered through e-government system?
What is the relationship between e-government systems design and service delivery?
1.5 Significance of the StudyThis research project will be important to especially the RDB as it elaborates on the importance of Irembo and its design features for service delivery. The users of Irembo will get an opportunity to comment on the system and provide feedback that will affect the improvement of service delivery initiates of the government especially through electronic media.
This researchers will also benefit other researchers as they will find it as a basis upon which to conduct further studies in this area.
1.6 Limitations of the StudyThis study may suffer from lack of honesty in provision of data especially with the fear that the findings will criticize government. However to overcome this, the respondents will be assured that the study is meant for academic purposes only and none of the information they provide will have any negative consequences to anybody including the government. It is the wish of the researcher to conduct a study on several e-government systems however Irembo is found sufficient enough to provide for the needs of the study.

1.7 Scope of the StudyThe scope of the study will cover content scope, geographical scope and time scope.

1.7.1 Content ScopeThis study will examine the impact of e-government systems design on service delivery.
1.7.2 Geographical ScopeThe present study will be carried in one provinces of Rwanda. It will be conducted in RDB headquarter in Kigali City in Rwanda and also within users in Kigali.

1.7.3 Time ScopeThis research project will focus on a period of 5 years from 2012 to 2017.The year 2011 will be considered as the time the system came to be used. This study will be carried out within the approved timeframe as specified by Mount Kenya University, School of Postgraduates Studies (January to April 2018).
1.8 Organization of the StudyThis proposal is made of three chapters. Chapter one highlights the introduction, the back ground of the study and the problem statement. In addition, objectives are defined; significance of the study as well as scope is explained. Chapter two includes the review of related literature, Chapter three includes research methodology.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 IntroductionThis chapter presents a review of literature pertinent to the study as presented by various researchers, scholars, analysts and authors. It summarizes literature that has been reviewed for the purpose of the study with regards to e-service system design and service delivery. The literature covers an empirical literature review, critical review and research gap identification, theoretical framework, conceptual framework and the summary.

2.1 Theoretical literature2.1 Concept of E-government
The concept of e-government is widely believed to have emerged around 1990 following the 50 years of information technology (IT) use in the public sector environments (Flak et al, 2007; Young-Jin ; Seang-Tae, 2007). While other literature for example (Spremic, et al, 2009) believe that the e-government idea was raised by the United States of America vice president (Al Gore) within his vision of linking the citizens to the various agencies of government by getting all kinds of government services automated, this was coupled with government costs reduction measures, performance improvement, speed and delivery, and also the effectiveness of implementation. It has been observed that the term “e-government” is not universally used, it encapsulates a wide variety of meanings ranging from policies that foster the development of information infrastructures to efforts that address digital divide (Akman et al, 2005; Heeks, 1999: Cawkell, 2001).
Many studies have defined egovernment in different ways: For example, the e-government hand book for developing countries (InfoDev, 2002) views e-government as a powerful tool to help all types of economies (developed, developing and in transition) to bring the benefits of the emerging global information society to the largest part of their respective societies including a greater transparency and accountability in public decisions, powerful ways to fight corruption, the ability to stimulate the emergence of e-cultures and the strengthening of democracy. Here, e-government is seen as a tool for achieving broader public sector reform goals and objectives (Yildiz, 2007). On the other hand the (World Bank, 2008) conceptualizes e-government as the use by government agencies of information technologies, Wide Area Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends, such as better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or cost reductions.
E-government categorized as e-services, e-administration and e-democracy as shown in Figure 2.1

Figure 2. SEQ Figure_2. * ARABIC 1 Integral components of E-governmentSource: Finish Ministry of Finance, 2009.

E-administration refers to the internal processes, data and information storages, and information systems of the public administration.
E-services refer to electronic services and patronization for citizens and businesses.E-democracy means the use of ICT by governments in general used by elected officials, media, political parties and interest groups, civil society organizations, international governmental organizations, or citizens/voters within any of the political processes of states/regions, nations, and local and global communities (Clift, 2003). In the Finnish concept, e-democracy is further broken down into the domains of e-consultation, e-participation and e-empowerment (Finnish Ministry of Finance, 2009). The goals of e-democracy (and e-consultation) are increasing democracy, improving quality of decisions and promoting acceptability of decisions and regulations. The concrete goals are to create and accomplish the methods and channels of internet participation, which allow citizens to express their opinions about issues in the drafting process, discuss deliberatively about the issues, express their own points of view in societal discussion, preparation and decision-making and gain experiences of influencing and in the end, making a difference (Finnish Ministry of Finance 2009).

E-consultation Consultation is a two-way relationship between citizens and government, providing a feedback mechanism from government to citizens. Governments define the issues for consultation, set the questions and manage the process, while citizens are invited to contribute their views and opinions (OECD 2003).

E-consultation does not, in principle, differ from traditional or face-to-face consultation. The key difference is the use of ICT as facilitating technology. By means of e-consultation, the administration aims to improve the quality and efficiency of drafting new policies. Tools used in e-consultation include electronic consultation forms, online polls, following of Internet discussion forums and other information sources (Finnish Ministry of Finance, 2009).

E-participation: Macintosh defines e-participation as “the use of information and communication technologies to broaden and deepen political participation by enabling citizens to connect with one another and with their elected representatives” (Macintosh 2006). Typically e-participation is associated with some form of political deliberation or decision-making and can take place within the formal political processes (e.g. voting), or outside it (e.g. political activism) (Sæbø et al. 2008). With regard to e-participation, the government aims at developing consultation and new participatory methods. As with e-consultation, the point of view is to increase inclusion and thus promote acceptance of decisions. In addition, e-participation tools and methods aim at increasing deliberation in the policy-making processes. In addition to previously mentioned (e-consultation) tools, e-participation tools can also include, e.g., wiki for drafting of documents, discussion forums, chats and blogs (Finnish Ministry of Finance 2009).

E-Empowerment is a concept familiar in the fields of pedagogy, psychology, sociology and economics. It refers to increasing the strength of individuals and communities, e.g., by developing their confidence in their own skills. Mäkinen (2009) proposes the digital empowerment process as a means to strengthen the awareness and capability of individuals and communities to actively and critically participate in the information society, as independent and cooperative actors. (Mäkinen 2009) Digital (or e-) empowerment is used to describe the empowering process, which utilizes digital tools such as new information technology to promote empowerment. E-empowerment also means the possibility to not just take part in the current policymaking processes, but also the capability to be involved in shaping the societal agenda.
2.2 E-government Models
Gartner Maturity Model (Baum & Maio, 2000) the model focuses on back-end business process integration and offers three stages of (1) web presence which provides a relatively static website for information publishing; (2) Interaction stage which allows a two directional communication where users are able to come in contact with different government entities through downloading of forms and related documents and using emails; (3) The transaction stage which enables users to transact online; and the (4) transformation stage affords the government an opportunity to transform the operational processes in order to provide an efficiently enhanced and integrated personal and unified service to users.

Hiller and Belanger (Hiller & Belanger, 2001), a five stage customer centric model offering; (1) Information dissemination just like the above, information is posted in the static website for general citizenry to access through a one way communication platform; (2) while a two way communication offering is enhanced through dynamic websites functionalities for government and citizens to interact. The next stage is (3) Service and financial transaction, an advanced stage coupled with sophistication in technology, here government online services include financial transactions with citizens as well as Bi-directional communication between governments and individuals; (4) Vertical and horizontal integration stage, enabling government to integrate various systems in its value chain, both from different levels and departments; then (5) the political participation stage being the most advanced stage under this model and enables ordinary citizens to participate politically through online voting and other online means.

Layne and Lee (Layne & Lee, 2001) this model puts emphasis on technological capability and is a four staged model (1) Cataloguing of government information; (2) transactional capabilities; (3) vertical integration where local systems are linked to a higher level system within similar functionalities; and (4) horizontal integration offering a real one stop shop to citizens.

The World Bank (World Bank, 2003), offers a three stages model focusing on efficient provision of e-government services and the overall development of egovernment. The model is concerned with (1) Publishing of important government information and ensuring such information is posted on the website; (2) Interactivity, this involves enhancement of websites capabilities to facilitate interaction; and (3) completing transactions, here citizens’ users are enabled through the availability of secure ICTs to transact online.

2.1.3 Benefits of implementing E-government
Citizens are the primary stakeholders for e-government implementation and the egovernment projects, if well implemented it has the potential to offer an increased citizens’ mindshare and engagement in the political and administrative processes, through delivery of clear and useful information online in a vibrant and interesting manner, as well as attract participation in online public consultations and feedback (Infocomm, 2006). This facilitates and builds participatory democracy (Cliff, 2004) which helps to build trust between government and citizens, thus satisfying amongst others, the fundamental element to good governance, (OCED, 2003). ICTs can help build trust by enabling citizens’ engagement in the policy process, promoting open and accountable government. Therefore e-government enhances and strengthens democracy and equality for all citizens stakeholders irrespective of their geographic locality, political, social and economic classes, this is achieved through reach and equitable access, effective representation in decision making process, transparency, interaction and engagement. Examples are; e-voting, e-participation and e-consultation. Increasingly e-government enhances capacity and synergy of the employee stakeholders in governance process and enables public sector competency development. Here, synergies are created through shared data, processes and systems; enrichment of public officers work experience through innovative use of existing e-government structures and technology platforms, which foster innovative exploitation of ICTs and internet in the public service (Infocomm, 2006). Through e-government there is a substantial development of strategic connections between public sector organisations and their departments, resulting in effective communication between government levels, i.e. central, city and local. These connections and communication improve cooperation; facilitate the provision and implementation of government strategies, transactions and policies. Further this will impact on the improved use and running of government processes, information and resources, (Ebrahim & Irani, 2005; Cabinet Office, 2000; Heeks, 2001).

1.2.4 Design of e-government system
E-government is operated on various platforms however in this study the study adopts the web-based e-government systems. The design features of a good and useable website is therefore relevant for the type of system adopted in this study.

1.2.4.1 The website design
According to Niederst Robbins (2007), web design is a process which includes a variety of different disciplines such as graphic design, information design, interface design, document production, scripting and programming, and multimedia. Allsop wrote in his article that the control which designers are used to having in the print medium is actually creating an unnecessary limitation for web design. He encourages designers to accept the lack of limitations and design for flexibility and aim for pages which are accessible for everyone (Allsop, 2000).

The web displays visual information and it is the graphic designer who decides on which type, colour, layouts, or graphics are used. The industry’s standard tool for design is Adobe Photoshop (Niederts, 2007). Brannan (2010) also mentions that a good method for beginning the design process is creating mock-ups with an image editing program, such as Adobe Photoshop. Multimedia content commonly seen on websites includes audio, video, animations, and Flash movies (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008, 8).
The document creation process may be defined as the process of creating and troubleshooting documents needed in a website, which requires knowledge of HTML. For designing the visual aspects it is not necessary to know how HTML works but it may help to understand what possibilities and challenges it brings. Web programmers produce forms, dynamic content, and interactivity for web pages. These advanced web functionalities are produced by scripting and programming. While they may be important parts of a web page, they do not play a vital part in the design of the visual elements (Niederst Robbins, 2007, 7-8.)
Web pages are created with HTML text files, which contain only letters, numbers and symbols. These files are known as the source documents. HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language and it is a language created for making websites. XHTML (the X stands for eXtensible) is basically an updated version of HTML with stricter rules; both are used to describe content of a web page and they may be referred to together as (X)HTML. (Niederst Robbins, 2007, 9-10.) Allsop (2000, cited 9.9.2014) points out that HTML should not be used as the main tool for visual presentation and suggests using classes as well as style sheets. In XHTML designers may create various different types of documents which is declared with DOCTYPE (short for document type and always written in capital letters) at the beginning of the file. The chosen DOCTYPE informs the browser which version of HTML or XHTML the author is using, which informs them how to handle the file (Zeldman, 2007).

PHP (which stands for PHP: Hypertext Processor) is a useful tool for creating dynamic sites as well as web applications, it is an open source scripting language which can be embedded into XHTML. The language is free as it was developed by the Apache Software Foundation and it is supported by Windows, UNIX, and Apache (Zeldman, 2007). PHP is used for creating, managing, displaying, and deleting information and it is essential for dynamic website management (Freeman, 2012). If there are images on a site, there must be image files, which are linked to the HTML file. Stock photos and illustrations are available for free on some websites, if the web designer does not want to produce new ones. There are three image formats used on the web: GIF, JPEG, and PNG. The GIF format is used for flat coloured, hard edged, animated, or transparent images, the JPEG format is used when the image is a photograph, or has otherwise smooth colour blends, and the PNG format is used with all image types as it is versatile. The three image types, GIF, JPEG, and PNG, are all bitmapped images, which means that they are constructed of pixels. Resolution in images refers to the amount of pixels per inch. Large image sizes mean unnecessary amounts of downloaded data for the user. Images can be resized with image editing software to minimise the amount of data (Niederst Robbins). Brannan recommends using JPEG’s for photographs and PNG files for everything else. The author also points out that images are often used to convey information as well as adding an entertaining aspect to a website (Brannan, 2010)
When it comes to the text content, the inverted pyramid model is a commonly used model in journalism as well as web design. The idea is that the most important aspects of the story are presented first and rest of the information is in order of relative importance. In short, the beginning answers the questions of who, what, where, why, when, and how. In second place will be the supporting information, and details will be left for the last part. (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008) The inverted pyramid allows readers to stop at any time, knowing that they got the most important information (Watrall & Siarto, 2008). Designers should present information in small sections with informative headings to produce material which makes an easy read. There is a “three click rule”, saying that any information should not be further than three clicks away for the users (Brannan, 2010). The text contents can be made scannable (easy to skim through) by having clear headers, brief introductions, emphasis on the important parts, short paragraphs, and bullet points. One part of the division is the navigation bar and important things to consider are that the navigation bar ought to be where users expect it (top of the page or along the sides) so it is easy to find, the links need to be easily recognised and clearly identified separate from each other (Watrall & Siarto, 2008)
1.2.4.2 Responsiveness
The three main elements of web design are a grid based layout, images and media, and media queries. The basic idea is to make a design which adapts, or in other words responds to the constraints which the browser windows or devices set (Marcotte, 2011). Adaptability regarding to web design means that the web pages need to be accessible with any browser, platform, or screen. Responsive web design was first defined by Ethan Marcotte as a design which responds to users needs; the layout changes so that for example on mobile phones the user would only see one column, while a tablet will show two (LePage 2014). With formulas the page’s layouts can be made into proportionally functioning grids; combinations of rows and columns, which are expressed as proportions of their element instead of pixels. Instead of writing pixel values in the CSS files, the designer may express the widths in relative terms, and as a result the grid will adjust itself according to the user’s screen. (Marcotte, 2011). Another perspective is that grids are used for organizing content and creating hierarchy by grouping information and elements (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008). Images can also be flexible. Modern browsers resize images proportionally which keeps the image ratio as it should be. As the browser window sizes change, the image may change size so that it is limited by the container in which it is placed in the grid’s layout (Marcotte, 2011). The W3C (The World Wide Web Consortium) defined a list of different media types in CSS which are tailored to answer the problems of different browsing tools.

Media queries identify a device’s and browsers’ physical characteristics as well as their media types. The first criteria in the CSS will specify a media type. The second part defines the query, which is commonly the name of a feature with a related value, such as the minimum width of the device’s screen. Most browsers support media queries, and JavaScript offers solutions for the older ones which do not comply (Marcotte, 2011). CSS media queries may be used for assigning different style sheets for different browser window sizes, and not only according to the screen width but also the orientation of the device (landscape or portrait) (Coyier, 2010).

1.2.4.3 Graphic Design
Layout: There are various ways to create layouts but in general they are made with CSS. There are three main ways to create a layout; liquid (adjusting size according to the browser window size), fixed (the content is a specific size and does not alter), and elastic (some areas change in size when the text size is altered). Using any option may work, the choice may vary according to the type of content on the web page (Niederst, 2007). A design grid helps to organize a website, it builds up a system of columns, borders, and sections into which content can be placed (Layout & Page Design Fundamentals, 2014).

Typography: Typography can be defined as “Design or selection of letter forms to be organized into words and sentences and printed or displayed electronically”. The three main type families in the Western printing are roman, italic, and gothic. There are around 10 000 typefaces, which are designed sets of letter forms. These typefaces may be categorized into three categories; old, transitional, and modern.

Types can convey emotion and thus send a message to the reader on what kind of message the content will include. When the intention is to offer a clear message to a designated viewer, accessibility is important. A versatile type will have a balanced weight and proportion and a minimal amount of extra forms and decorations. Type size in web design in measured in ems, which is an international standard of measurement. The em units are dynamic in a sense that when a viewer chooses their preferences for the screen, the type is displayed proportionally. (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008). A standard size for fonts was declared in 1999 by the makers of Netscape, Microsoft browsers, and Mozilla. They made default font sizes of 16px/96ppi for all platforms to avoid the problems of cross-platform size differences which could make a text illegible in some platforms while it looks perfectly alright in the one it was designed for (Zeldman, 2007). Font sizes may also be set by percentages or absolute key words (xx-small, x-small, small, medium, large, x-large, xx-large), where medium is often the deafult size (Niederst, 2007).

Column width has an effect on readability as well; in an excessively narrow column words become hyphenated, which slows word recognition, whereas a very wide column makes it challenging to find the location of the next row. A study in print has declared that a 10 cm column is the most readable, while a more recent study in online texts would say that a column of 18 cm width makes the easiest read. (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008). In fact some researches have found that shorter line lengths are preferred for online reading as it appears more organized and easier to comprehend and it has also been researched that short line lenghts really are easier to understand. This means that there would be a lot of space for other content and it might not be practical for all websites. One solution is to gain the readers interest by having the first few lines shorter; once the reader is interested, they may continue regardless of the width of the column (Halpern, 2014).

Spacing between letters and lines of type can affect the readability as well. The latter is called leading, and altering the leading in paragraphs may also give a sense of hierarchy. With a very small leading the rows of type may collide and complicate recognising the words, as with a very large leading locating the next line may hinder the reader. Thus it is advisable to have a medium measure for the leader. Commonly web pages have a leading of 120 per cent of the type point size as a standard. The horizontal space between letters may also be adjusted; it is referred to as “kerning” and tracking means the adjustment of the space in a word, line, paragraph, or text. (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008).

Paragraphs of type can be arranged to align to the left, right, or centre. For western culture the left alignment is common as we read from left to right; the left side will remain straight and the starting point of the next row of type will be easy to find. The paragraph may be aligned or justified; the first option may leave an uneven side but the latter may distort the words with uneven spacing to even the paragraph into straight lines on the sides. (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008).

Colours: Colours have an effect on human emotions so in design work it is important to consider what emotions the site creates in viewers; strong colours result in strong reactions. Related to colours, saturation of a colour indicates its brightness or darkness and using dark colours in a web site may appear heavy. (Watrall & Siarto, 2008) Colours may present visual identity and have functional attributes such as drawing attention, relying only on colour to bring across a message may not be a good idea (Allsop, 2000). However, colours can be a more subtle way to convey information than graphic images (Watrall & Siarto, 2008).

Accessibility issues may arise with designing colours; one option for avoiding them would be to use style sheets instead of HTML elements when possible. In CSS colours are indicated with hexadecimal values to inform the browser how much red, green, and blue to display. These values can be found on several sites on the internet (Watrall & Siarto, 2008). Computers display colours using RGB (red, green, and blue), the codes and names by which colours may be used in HTML and CSS can easily be found listed on various websites with search engines. It may be worth pointing out that the colours will not always appear the same on different devices and monitors, and accepting the fact may be all a designer can do (Brannan, 2010). In addition to physical (colour blindness) and environmental characteristics, the viewer may have a different cultural perspective affecting the way colours are seen or interpreted (Visocky O’Grady & Visocky O’Grady, 2008).

1.2.5 Design Features of Irembo
The Irembo is the one-stop portal for e-Government services with a role as a platform for the provision of Government services online with ease, efficiency and reliability ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/read/195331/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “3”, “9” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bizimungu”, “given” : “Julius”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The New Times”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “News”, “title” : “Mobile apps to ease public service delivery – The New Times | Rwanda”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d286918b-5973-3558-958e-3cae54278ab3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bizimungu, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bizimungu, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bizimungu, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bizimungu, 2015). It has its contents organized in such a way that content can be searched by topic, by ministry, by name or popularity. The system ensures security in that the user has to login and out meaning that they should have opened an account with Irembo to access and use it. The Irembo can be used on both computers and mobile devices connected to internet to search a list of services offered by the different government ministries in Rwanda in both Kinyarwanda the local language, French and English. Figure 2.2 shows the home page of Irembo when logged in.

Figure 2. SEQ Figure_2. * ARABIC 2Irembo Home pageWhen logged in, the system displays as shown in Figure 2.2. It request the guest to sign in or sign up if a new user. A large search box appears right in the middle of the welcome page and right below it are the classes of popular services though by clicking on view all more services appear. The user can select to display the page either in English, Kinyarwanda or French.

Figure 2. SEQ Figure_2. * ARABIC 3Irembo Main menuFigure 2.3 shows the menus of of the services by different ministries. The services range from immigration and emigration services to ubudehe and Mutuelle services. The user only needs to click on one of the service providers and view a page like one shown in Figure 2.4.

Figure 2. SEQ Figure_2. * ARABIC 4Local Government menu expandedAs seen in Figure 2.4 when the menu is expanded, it opens several services that are provided by the specific service provider. In the Figure 2.4 it is the local government menu and shows a list of all services provided by the local government. All these are viewed from the guest access however when the guest makes up their mind, then they login and are able to fill in the information for the particular service. A receipt is generated that directs the applicant to pay at the nearest bank and access the service requested for.

Quality of Service Delivery
According to Omachonu et al (2008), quality has a long term impact on the satisfaction of customers. Customer satisfaction and service quality are certainly interlinked and these create value for the customer or client and help him to make decisions as to whether the service justifies the cost. Five specific dimensions of service quality have been identified – tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy (Parasuraman et al, 1988). Cavana et al (2007), agreed that the dimensions of service quality are five but different in that they introduced a different dimension and dropped “tangibles”. According to them service quality dimensions are – assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability and convenience.

2.1.2 Service Quality Dimensions
Lai (2004), reported that there is a positive relationship between service quality dimensions such as tangibles, empathy and assurance on one hand and customer satisfaction on the other. In services marketing literature, service quality has been reported as a second order construct being composed of first order variables (Sachdev & Verma, 2004). Various authors have provided different conceptualizations over time.
They include Groonroos’ (1984) three-component structure (technical quality, functional quality and reputational quality); Lehtinen and Lehtinen’s (1982) three component conceptualization (interactive, physical and corporate quality); Hedvall and Paltschik’s (1989) two dimension model (willingness and ability to serve; and physical and psychological access); Garvin’s (1988) nine dimensional approach (performance, features, conformance, reliability, durability, serviceability, response, aesthetics and reputation); Oliver and Rust’s (1994) functional quality, technical quality and environmental quality construct; Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (PZB) (1988) conceptualization of five dimensions (tangibles (T), reliability (R), responsiveness (R), assurance (A) and empathy (E) which eventually led to the development of the SERVQUAL instrument.

However, the five dimensional construct of PZB (1988) happens to be the most universally accepted and most extensively used. Assurance has been defined as the “employees” knowledge and courtesy and the service provider’s ability to inspire trust and confidence” (Zeithaml et al 2006). According to Har (2008), this dimension may differ from one industry to the other. In some it may be very important, in others it may not.

Assurance
Andaleeb and Conway (2006) observed that assurance may not be so important relative to other industries where the risk is higher and the outcome of using the service is uncertain. They concluded that in the health sector, for example, assurance is a very much important dimension to clients assessing a hospital or a surgeon for an operation. Health is wealth” no one can afford to risk it. Patients/customers with uncertainty about the service quality have little or no confidence in the healthcare provider. This seeps into the feelings of doubt about the diagnosis or even the treatment. Health care providers should endeavor to courteously convey constant trust to the customers (Lam, 2006)
Empathy
Empathy has been found to be more suitable and important in enhancing service quality in industries where building relationships with customers and clients ensures the firm’s survival as opposed to transaction marketing. (Andaleeb & Conway, 2006). Thus Har has argued that in quick service restaurant setting, the customer look for quick service and whether the queues at the counters are long and in that context empathy may not be so important. He however indicated that in fine dining restaurant, empathy may be important to ensure customer loyalty as the server knows how the customer likes his or her food prepared (Har, 2008). Empathy, according to Har (2008), is treating the customer as if he is unique and special. It is defined as the caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers (Zeithaml et al, 2006). Like the other dimensions, the importance of this factor differs from industry to industry.

This is the ability to provide individualized care and attention to customers. Generally, a good customer/employee relationship can be established when the employee understands the personal needs and values of the customer. The attention paid to the customer and the uniqueness in the manner in which this is addressed can build trust, empathy, and satisfaction between the customer and the service provider (Carmam et al, 2006)
Reliability
Reliability is about the organization keeping its word. It is defined as the ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately” or delivering on its promises (Zeithaml et al, 2006). This dimension is very significant to hospitals that need to evaluate their overall service quality level. For instance, when hospital schedules are reliable, especially in problem solving, time, date, recording data, and the fulfillment of an agreement, customers tend to trust the health provider (Sheikh, 2006).

Responsiveness
Responsiveness is the willingness to help customers and provide prompt services. This dimension is concerned with dealing with customer’s requests, questions and complaints promptly and attentively. A firm is known to be responsive if it takes time to communicate to its clients how long it would take to get answers or have their problems dealt with (Har, 2008). Many patients are dissatisfied when they have to wait hours for treatment or consultation. Hospitals should place more emphasis on promptness and communicate important treatment plans ahead of time in order to satisfy customers. Dealing with client complaints and requests is another issue, and hospital personnel should be trained to tackle them easily and readily (Carmam et.al, 2006)
Tangibility
Tangibles is defined as the physical appearance of facilities, equipment, and staff and written materials. It also refers to the physical appearance of the personnel, equipment and facilities. Hospitals or clinics with good infrastructures, neat personnel and equipment visually appeals and attracts lots of customers. This simply creates a positive impact and signals quality to patients, thus encourages them to visit such hospital environments for treatment (Carmam, Lam, & sheikh, 2006). Tangibles are used to convey images and to signal quality (Zeithaml et al 2006). Hayes (1997), states that some quality dimensions are generalized across many services, but some will apply only to specific type of services and it is necessary to understand quality dimensions to be able to develop measures to assess them.

Empirical literature reviewThe present study reviews the various global, regional, and local studies on effects of mobile payment systems on service delivery.

Design of e-government services
Kim and Lee (2004) attempted to identify the underlying dimensions of web service quality and compared the magnitude of web service quality dimensions between online travel agencies and online travel suppliers in explaining the overall level of customer satisfaction. Five dimensions of website quality were identified by online travel agencies as structure and ease of use, information content, responsiveness and personalization, reputation and security, and usefulness. Four dimensions were identified by online travel suppliers as dimensions affecting web service quality that were information content, structure and ease of use, reputation and security, and usefulness (Kim & Lee, 2004). It was found that information content was uniquely identified by online travel agencies and considered as the dimension that most significantly affected overall customer satisfaction. However, the dimension of structure and ease of use was identified as the most important dimension by online travel suppliers.
In an attempt to compare users’ web acceptance and usage between a goal-directed user group and an experiential user group, Sanchez-Franco and Roldan (2005) studied relationships among usefulness, ease of use and flow dimensions. Initially they used two major dimensions of usefulness and ease of use in the model. Researchers (Sanchez-Franco ; Roldan, 2005) found that experiential and goal-directed behaviors moderate the key relationships in the model, in which they found experiential and goal-directed users weighed extrinsic and intrinsic motivation differently on the web. However, it was found that goal-directed users were more driven by instrumental factors and focused on their decision-making process while experiential users were more motivated by process. Later, they included the flow dimension, which was defined as enjoyment and concentration constructs, to investigate users’ acceptance and usage to see whether or not they were goal driven. However, operationalizing the flow construct might be questioned due to its vagueness in conceptualization and failure of including relevant variables (Sanchez-Franco & Roldan, 2005).
In an exploratory study comparing the Internet purchaser group to the non-purchaser group, Yang and Jun (2002) discovered differences in dimensions of perceived website service quality between the two groups. The Internet purchaser group considered reliability the most important dimension of website service quality among five other dimensions; access, ease of use, personalization, security, and credibility. It was also found that the non-purchaser group perceived security as the most critical factor of website service quality among other six factors including responsiveness, ease of use, reliability, availability, personalization, and access. The researchers (Yang & Jun, 2002) investigated the key underlying dimensions to better understand customers’ assessment of online service quality from both Internet purchasers and non-purchasers’ perspectives. It was identified that both groups perceived that reliability, personalization, ease of use and access dimensions significantly affected website service quality. While credibility was considered as the significant dimension by Internet purchasers, availability was perceived as the unique dimension by non-purchasers.
Quality of service delivery
E-service provides customers with a different experience with the interactive flow of information. Much of research work in e-service quality takes a combination of traditional service quality dimensions and web interface quality dimensions as its point of departure. Field et al. (2004) argued that e-service can play a critical role in improving the services quality delivered to its customers as it can achieve survival, increase satisfaction and trust and then generate the competitive success for organizations.

Yang (2001) argues that customers reach satisfaction decision by comparing the performance a product or service with their prior expectations. If performance exceeds the expectation positive disconfirmation occurs and increases in satisfaction can be expected to take place. Saha and Zoha (2005) state providing a good service quality is a major issue for all business. Online quality service is a key issue to maintain customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is collective outcome of perception, evaluation and psychological relations to the consumption experience with a product or service.
Kalsi et al. (2009) has addressed the e-government initiatives has a direct impact on the citizens and in which the citizens derive benefits through direct transactions with the governmental services. Al-Tarawneh (2012) is studied on e-service quality and customer perception, the study indicates that responsiveness, ease of use, personalization, security; and website design have influence on customer’s perception of e- service quality.
2.2.3 Effect of e-government system design on Service delivery
A study by Kamana (2016) examined the effects of e-filing and e-payment on revenue collection by Rwanda Revenue Authority. The study found that before electronic tax management system was introduced especially from 2003 to 2010, tax collection was reduced from 119.1 to 385.2 but the trend changed drastically in 2012 and 2013 by 48.1% and 42.9% respectively after introduction of e-payment methods.
Otieno et al. (2013) study found that there is a relationship between Information Systems (IS) and both efficiency and effectiveness in revenue collection, there is a strong positive relationship between Internal Control Systems and revenue collection. However, resistance to change by the council staff was derailing the full implementation of IS. The study is useful to the present study for full integration of IS, and more specifically e-payment system, in revenue collection. A study by Wahab (2012) established that the adoption and use of the e-payment system was found to be low mainly due to the inadequate availability of point of sale terminals at shopping points among others. These are affecting the perceived ease of use even though the perceived usefulness of e-payment systems is strongly present among individuals and businesses. The study recommended customer education and wide spread deployment of e-payment point of sale terminals to merchants.

Kayaga (2010) study showed that new technology alone is not sufficient if the government does not recognize the need for skilled tax officials. The scholar further avers that, effective tax administration requires qualified tax personnel with requisite skills to maintain these systems and operate them to their fullest potential. Simiyu’s ( 2010) study indicated established that, tax officers accepted bribes when offered to reduce tax liability and demand for bribes when they visited, a situation that hugely affected revenue collection in Nairobi County, Kenya. Gikandi and Bloor (2010) study found that some factors tended to inhibit the adoption of e-commerce in Kenya. These include; lack of resources, constant change in technology, time available to develop systems, the lack of spread of accessibility and use of Internet by the general population, especially in the rural areas. Organizational, governmental and developmental issues were also identified as constraints to the adoption of e- commerce in the banking sector in Kenya. The study observed that e-banking introduced new risks requiring new risk management strategies, including Internet security, customer and legal related issues. The study concluded by emphasizing the role of Kenya Government in achieving a secure environment for e-banking activities by; putting in place clear laws, rules and regulations and providing relevant technical training to the regulatory authority to empower them to enforce the laws effectively.

The study by Rocheleau and Wu (2005) found that some of the most challenging e- government applications involve allowing citizens and other customers to conduct financially related transactions electronically with governments on a 24-hour, 7-day a week basis. Generally, usage rates are low, demonstrating that there is a gap between the potential and reality of this form of e-government. Statistical tests showed that convenience fees have a negative effect on usage rates. The governments can affect usage rates by providing incentives to employ online transactions and/or penalties for making payment by manual methods. Governments may also improve their usage rates by making their websites and applications accessible and easy-to-use as well as by extensively marketing these applications.

A study by Moulder (2005) showed that most county governments had plans to offer online payment of utility bills, fees and fines. Norris & Moon (2005) point out that the percent of governments adopting e-payments financial transactions should have jumped by 32 per cent between 2000 and 2002 but the actual increase was only 6.5 percent. There are significant obstacles to offering online services which included; lack of IT staff and financial resources; issues of security and convenience. This finding could reflect their interest in developing online transaction systems. The study by Kaburia (2004) found out that lack of suitable e-Payment alternatives was a critical challenge to the growth of e-commerce in Kenya. An e-Payment model suitable for individuals in Kenya was proposed. Perlman (2001) established that the use of third party vendors has allowed counties without large ICT resources to implement an online ticket-paying system. This shows that small and moderately-sized cities can experience success through use of vendors and cooperative efforts of pooling resources.

2.3 Critical review and research gap identificationIn contrast to traditional government processes, e-Government is characterized by (1) extensive use of communication technology (2) the impersonal nature of the online environment (3) the ease of information can be collected (data-mining), processed and used by multiple parties (Warkentin, Gefen, Pavlou & Rose, 2002). However, e-Government has the implicit uncertainty of using an open technological infrastructure for transaction via the newness of the communication medium – interact with a government website. This would indirectly increase the spatial and temporal separation between citizens and government; more uncertainty and concern about the reliability of the underlying Internet and related government infrastructure interfaces. As overall these unique differences increase uncertainty and reduce perception of citizen control, imposing a barrier to e-Government adoption (Geetha & Sekar, 2012).
The study by Rocheleau and Wu (2005) did not examine e-government system design on service delivery rather it was concerned with the factors that affect e-government usage. That of Moulder (2005) was also concerned with how e-government is used for service delivery but did not address design factors of e-government services.

These gaps are addressed in this study and particularly the design aspects of e-government system will be the independent variable and its effect on service delivery used as the dependent variable. Moreover none of the studies was conducted in Rwanda but rather majority are studies of developed countries with few based in low developed countries such as Rwanda.

2.4 Theoretical framework2.4.1 Systems Theory
The main theoretical framework underlying this study is the use of the system theory of management, regarded as one of the total quality management approaches espoused by quality management writer such Dobbins and Crawford-Mason, 1998. The system theory views organizations as a unified and purposeful system of interrelated parts. This approach expects management to look at the organizations as whole and as part of a larger, external environment. As Ludwig von Bertalantly et al 1956 pointed out; the system theory tells us that the activity of any part or segment of the organization affects, in varying degrees, the activity of every other segment. This pre-supposes that every part of the system including the work force must work to support each other. When the sub-systems of an organization do not support each other, then the organization cannot focus on quality management. The theory therefore emphasized that every organization interacts with the internal and external system by taking resources from the environment and providing output. According to the system theory, every organization has two major inputs
2.4.2 Disconfirmation Theory.

A discussion on customer satisfaction and customer expectations cannot be complete without discussing the disconfirmation theory. The disconfirmation theory stands out as the primary foundation for satisfaction models in marketing literature (Churchill and Surprenant, 1982; Oliver, 1980). According to this theory, satisfaction is determined or measured by the discrepancy between perceived performance and cognitive standards such as expectations and desires (Khalifa & Liu, 2003). Customers or clients expectations can be defined as customer’s partrial beliefs about a product or service (Mckinney et al, 2002). According to Zeithaml and Berry (1988), expectations can be viewed as predictions made by consumers about what is likely to happen during impending transaction or exchange.
Perceived performance on the other hand is customers’ perception of how product or service performance fulfills their needs, wants and desire (Cadotte et al, 1987). Perceived quality is the customer’s judgment about an entity’s overall excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988). Disconfirmation is therefore defined as the customer’s subjective judgments resulting from comparing their expectations and their perceptions of performance received (Mckinney et al, 2002; Spreng et al, 1996). The disconfirmation theory states that satisfaction is affected by the intensity (or size) and direction (positive or negative) of the gap (disconfirmation) between expectations and perceived performance.

2.5 Conceptual frameworkThe conceptual framework here is used to represent the relationship between the independent and dependent variables of this study.

0363855Content Organization
Graphic design
Responsiveness
Timeliness
Usability
Accessible
Ease of use
Dependent variable
Intervening variable
Hardware technologies,
Personnel training,
Reliable internet connection and electricity.

Independent variable
00Content Organization
Graphic design
Responsiveness
Timeliness
Usability
Accessible
Ease of use
Dependent variable
Intervening variable
Hardware technologies,
Personnel training,
Reliable internet connection and electricity.

Independent variable

E-government systems Design Service Delivery
Sources: Researcher (2017)Figure 2. 5 Conceptual FrameworkThe independent variable of this study will be e-government system design and the components to measure it are the organization of content, graphic design and responsiveness. These elements have been found to influence how the system is used in service delivery. With poor graphic design the user may find it difficult to recognize services provided while if the system cannot respond in different media, then it will only be limited to particular media hence lower the access to services. The dependent variable is service delivery which include Timeliness which deals with the ability of the system to provide timely services, usability which is the quality of the information provided. The information provided must be usable for the needs of the user. Ease of use which implies that the website should be ease to use while accessibility means that the site can be accessible when needed.

Other factors that may affect the relationship in this study include hardware technology, personal training, other technological factors such as internet connection and availability of electricity.

2.6 SummaryThe review of literature focused on introduction, the review of past studies where an emphasis was on e-government system design its effect on service in Rwanda. This chapter also covered theoretical framework, e-government system design concepts, research models, empirical literature review, Critical review and research gap identification and Conceptual framework. The aim of the literature review was to look at examine the relationship between e-government system design and service delivery.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.0 IntroductionMethodology embraces the research design, population, instruments used to collect data, ethical considerations, data analysis and its interpretation. Methodology therefore helps the researcher and the reader to understand the process of the research thus giving it scientific merit (Cohen, Manion ; Morrison, 2000). The design of the study, target population, sample size and data collection will be covered in this chapter. Lastly validity and reliability issues as well as data analysis strategy will be discussed.

3.1 Research designThe study will adopt descriptive research design since it describes the state of affairs as it is. Descriptive design is used when collecting information about people’s attitudes, opinions, habits and other possible behavior (Orodho and Kombo, 2005). The study aims at describing the state of affairs of e-government system design and therefore descriptive research design is considered as the most appropriate for this study. The research will be both quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data will be obtained using structured questionnaires and qualitative data and through secondary sources of information and observation.

3.2 Target PopulationThe target population will be the 488 managers and users of Irembo at Rwanda Development Board (RDB) and surrounding Irembo service providers which is categorized as 65 irembo managers and 423 users ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.rdb.rw/news-pages/news-details/article/the-rwanda-development-board-meets-application-developers-over-cyber-security.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2016”, “9”, “9” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rwanda Development Board RDB”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “RDB News”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “News”, “title” : “The Rwanda Development Board application developers over cyber security”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=855ee4b7-92f5-444d-a65a-467a13e53f02” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rwanda Development Board RDB, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rwanda Development Board RDB, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rwanda Development Board RDB, 2015)
3.3 Sample DesignA sample is “a smaller (but hopefully representative) collection of units from a population used to determine truths about that population” (Field, 2005).

Given that this research is descriptive, the sample size will be calculated using the following Slovin’s formula:
n=N(1+Ne2) Where n=sample size, N=population size, e=Margin error. A confidence level of 95% (0.95) was assumed which resulted e=1-0.95=0.05. Thus,
n=4881+(488*0.052)=219.8The sample size will be determined as shown in Table 3.1
Table 3. SEQ Table_3. * ARABIC 1Sample Size determination for strataDepartment Total Sample Sampling Technique
managers 65 29 Simple random
Tax Payers 423 191 Simple random
Total 488 220 Source: Primary data
3.4 Sampling procedure
Sampling is a process or technique of choosing a sub-group from a population to participate in the study; it is the process of selecting a number of individuals for a study in such a way that the individuals selected represent the large group from which they were selected (Ogula, 2005). In this research a sample of 220 persons will be used. The selection of the sample will be based on simple random sampling by using a table of random numbers. The names of the population identified will be requested for from the RDB person in charge. The names will be shuffled in MS Excel and the first numbers described by Table 3.1 included respectively.

3.5 Data CollectionThe first instrument to apply in this study is a questionnaire and will be distributed to the respondents. The second instrument to apply in this study will be an interview, which will be conducted with mobile money service providers. A questionnaire is a set of related questions to which respondents answer by giving written information. An interview is a conversation in which one or more persons consult and elicit facts and information from respondents.

In this study, the questionnaire will be composed of open and closed questions to find the opinion and the view of respondents. Questions will be used in this study and prepared according to objectives of the research. Questions were chosen because they are used to gather data from many respondents within the shortest space of time compared to other data collection methods. The instrument that will help to obtain main data that essentially gave reliable data in relation to mobile payments and its impact to taxes revenue collection.

3.5.1 Data Collection ProceduresOn an appointed date the researcher will visit the data collection site. With the letter of introduction sent and approved prior to the collection data, the tools will be administered according to sample identified in Table 3.1. The questionnaires will be distributed to the respondents and those unable to fill it due to time constraints will be given and requested to state a time when the researcher would go back and collect the filled tools.
3.5.2 Reliability and ValidityReliability is the degree to which a questionnaire or any other measurement method produces the same results on repeated experiments in different studies. Reliability of the study ensures errors in the study are minimized .Validity is the precision of the results that can be acquired from data gathered using the research instruments (Miller, 2000).Reliability requires the process of research to be consistent allowing any later researcher to follow the exact same procedures and get the same result (Salhuddin, 2011).

Firstly to ensure that the content of the questionnaire were valid and reliable. First professionals who have knowledge in the area of study will be consulted. Their evaluations will be included in order to have reliable instruments. Secondly a pilot study was conducted in order to test the questionnaire before collecting the real data. In order to test the internal validity of the different constructs a Cronbach’s alpha test was performed on the questionnaire.3.6 Data Analysis ProcedureData analysis is the process of examining, categorizing, transforming data with the purpose of determining useful information, suggesting conclusions and supporting decision making based on the processed data. After collecting data, the explanation of all the processing operations was followed including editing, coding, classification and tabulation as listed. Data will be summarized using descriptive statistics such as graphs, tables, frequency tables, weighted averages and percentages to enable to describe the relationships established. This will be achieved by the use of Statistical Package for the social sciences version 20.0(SPSS V.20.0).Interview guide using content analysis.

3.7 Method of Data Analysis of Each ObjectiveFor the objective 1: The primary data and descriptive statistics will help to determine the usage of mobile payments system in tax revenue collection.

For the objective 2 : Primary data collected using questionnaires will be analyzed using SPSS v20 and the resulting indicators will be presented to show the extent of service delivery at Irembo e-government using graphs and tables then,
For the objective 3: the correlation method and Anova test will be used to depict the relationship between e-government system design and service delivery.

3.8 Ethical ConsiderationThe data collected will be given on voluntary basis and respondents will respond based on their willingness. The researcher will include assurance to the respondents in writing that information given will be treated with high confidentiality and that the results will be used for academic purpose only.

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APPENDICESAPPENDIX I. Letter to the RespondentsDear Respondent,
I am a graduate student of Mount Kenya University carrying out a research on “E-Government system design and service delivery, A Case Study of Irembo” as a partial fulfillment for the requirement of an award of a degree of Master of Science in Information Technology (MSCIT). You are humbly requested to spend approximately 20 minutes or less of your time completing the attached questionnaire. The information you provide will be kept strictly confidential and used only for the purpose of this study. Kindly submit the completed questionnaire to the researcher with all requested details.
Yours sincerely,
…………………….

Mr. Ephrem TUYISENGE
Researcher
SECTION I: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR IREMBO E-GOVERNMENT STAFFPart One: General information about the respondent
Kindly tick in the proposed box (?) against the appropriate for you.

18415160020AGE (Tick one option only)
18-25
25-35
35-45
45 and above
00AGE (Tick one option only)
18-25
25-35
35-45
45 and above
285940552070EDUCATIONAL LEVEL (Tick one option only)
Secondary school
Undergraduate
Graduate
Other
00EDUCATIONAL LEVEL (Tick one option only)
Secondary school
Undergraduate
Graduate
Other

2904490141605LANGUAGE SPOKEN (You may tick more than one option)
Kinyarwanda
French
English
Others
00LANGUAGE SPOKEN (You may tick more than one option)
Kinyarwanda
French
English
Others
18415141605GENDER (Tick one option only)
Male
Female
00GENDER (Tick one option only)
Male
Female

Work experience
How many years have you worked?
20408904000500Below 5 years
204216043815005 to 10 years
2043430209550010 to 15 years
2044700425450014 years and above
Please indicate how you agree with each of the following statements when using the Irembo. Using a 5-point scale with 1 being “Strongly disagree” and 5 being “Strongly agree,” please click the appropriate number for your rating based on your experience with the website that you mentioned above.
Content Organization
Useful information
1 2 3 4 5
1. Information of the website was helpful and met my needs.
2. The website described complete information about the services.
3. The website provided a wide range of information of the services.
1 2 3 4 5
Ease of use
1. It was easy for me to navigate the website.
2. Information search functions on the website were easy to use.
3. Service are easy to locate
Accessible
1 2 3 4 5
1. The website is pulled out in no time.
2. I can access to this website quickly every time whenever I try.
3. Website address is easy to remember
1 2 3 4 5
Aesthetics/design
1. This website used good color coordination.
2. The website showed quality pictures of the hotel.
3. The website is comfortable to look at.
4. Hyperlinks are valid
5. Navigation is easy
6. Web pages load fast
7. Website has adequate search facilities
8. Websites has many interactive service features
Responsiveness
1 2 3 4 5
1. Webpage can be personalized customized
2. Questions are quickly responded
3. Relevant FAQ help customers to solve problems
4. Feedback is customized exactly to my question
5. Customers are notified for new offers automatically
Sn Statements Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
Timeliness 7. I receive requested services within a reasonable timeframe 1 2 3 4 5
I receive my service request right on time the first time Am informed about exactly when the request can be completed Am informed regularly about the status of your requests 8. I receive prompt services without delays 1 2 3 4 5
APPENDIX III: RESEARCH TIMELINE/2018
Activity (Work/week) April May June
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Preparation and submission of the Research ProposalPresentation of research proposal Data collection and Data entry Data analysis and processDrafting reportFinal reportAPPENDIX IV. RESEARCH BUDGETFor efficiency and effectiveness of the study the researcher will need the following resources:
No Description Cost Rwf
1 Communication 60,000
2 Transport 170,000
3 Materials 220,000
4 Report 210,000
Total= 660,000

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