Chapter I

Problem and Related Literature

INTRODUCTION

Language define as audible articulate human speech as produced by the action of the tongue adjacent vocal organs or in any means vocal or otherwise expressing or communicating feeling or communicating thought (WEBSTER Dictionary). This is the prevalent problems in the public schools. Learners have difficulty in communicating using the English language. It is a mandate that English language shall be used in all public in all public educational institution curriculum as medium of instruction. In order for the 2ist century learner to be globally competitive it is imperative that all learners shall be English proficient considering that it is a universal language and precursor to global communication.

English language is already in the existence of controversy in classroom discussion, learners has difficulty in the form of utterance, mastery in articulation and in recalling facts, summarizing, comprehension, analyzing in depth details, expounding ideas, relating and synthesizing imperative details. Learners are just being silent in all times when they are called. Teachers’ intervention are being introduce like creating interactive activities that require individual oral presentation in order to develop and enhance their mastery and learning skills. but still there were only few who can relate but mostly were just bowing their heads and looking at the floors the actuation that signify probably hesitation because they are not confident enough to speak, they do not know where to start? Probably they were just being ashamed, scared of being bullied because of the language grammar and as well as pronunciation in particular, they do not know how to construct English grammar. The fact that are not used to speak the fact that at home they were using the native language therefore they have difficulty in speaking English language. How the does the native language become the barrier or gap of speaking in the proficiency of language communication.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Communication is vital tool and avenue for transmitting ideas, knowledge, thought, feelings and emotion, exchanging information which is imperative in everyday practice This study evolved in the problems of the learners to participation in the classroom discussion, and other related school activities such literary contest that require public speaking. This study intent to examine and investigate the language barrier that the student have had experience in the daily practice of articulation.
Communication theory was initiated by( Aristotle) he is the agent of the earliest means of communication model the importance of this model focused on public speaking his model has 5 basic elements namely speaker, speech, occasion, audience and effects this model. The advantages of public speaking is to improve communication skills, social connections, enhance public speaking, carrier growth and most importantly inspires other.
Verbal communication is simply sending message through a spoken language that is understood by both sender and receiver of the message. Rhetorical relating to or concerned with the art of speaking or writing formally and effectively as a way to persuade or influence people.(Miriam Dictionary) Public speaking is the process of communicating information to an
audience. It is usually done before a large audience, like in school, the workplace and even in our personal lives. The advantage of knowing how to communicate it has to do with sharpening critical thinking and verbal communication skills. Learning and mastering the English language is quite difficult especially in the form of utterance language is a barrier for many student in rural areas. Even if in the school the English language has been applied and used in the different discipline and practice in school every day but still it is an extreme problem. The factor that affect master and leaning the language due to environmental factor the family the community does not use the English language as primary language nor secondary language. Learners are just using the local dialect which is the Sama,, Kalibugan and Filipino language.
Language can be acquired through the environment and learning in constant practice, it can be acquired through social interaction such as at home, community, school and even friends because our culture develop through social interactions.
Language acquisition is a process that takes its place at any period of one’s specially meeting of different people with different background.

THEOROTICAL / CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Although language is a barrier in speaking it is difficult to learn and mastered theory could assert that it can be developed, learned and master by means of practicing after an in depth analysis as to the roots of the problem in English proficiency in rhetorical context it is indeed impugn by known theory. Accordingly language can be acquired (B. F. Skinner) in his social learning theory believed that language depends largely in the environment through the principles of conditioning, learning association, imitation and reinforcement. Children learn language based on behaviorist reinforcement in the principles by associating words with meaning correct utterance would be reinforce when the child realized the communicative value of the word and phrases. Skinners operant conditioning is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior and changes in behavior are the result of an individual response that occurs in the environment. Skinner claimed that language acquisition and development are learned behaviors cognitive learning as the function base on how persons process and reason information it revolves around many factors including problem solving skills, memory retention, thinking skills and perception of learned materials.
( Albert Bandura) learning theory also stated that people can learn from one another via observation, imitation, and modeling the theory has always been called the bridge between cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory and motivation.

Social learning theory combines combined cognitive learning theory that learning is influenced by psychological factors and behavior and behavioral learning theory believed that learning is based on responses to the environmental stimuli. Bandura integrated this two theories for learning observation which is environmental and cognitive the motivation.
(Vygotsky) social development theory assert the three major themes regarding social interactions. Learning precedes development focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experience. Humans used tool that develop from a culture, such as speech and writing to mediate their social environments.
Scientifically, genes and the environment equally affect language research showed that brain activity in the frontal area is equally affected by the environment and genetic factors findings provide insights into how language is influenced by genes and the environment.
In the theory of (Chomsky) he describe competence as the abstract ability of an individual to speak the language which he or she has learn as native language in his/her childhood. The competence is unaffected by such factor as nervousness, temporary loss of memory, speech errors. This phenomena are entirely within the domain of performance which refers to the process of applying ones competence in the act of speaking.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem is the ability of the students to speak and interact during classroom discussion and other related activities that requires public speaking has the effect on the factor that reflect the environment where the students are used to.

This question seeks to answer this questions.

1. Does language acquisition has a relationship with environmental condition of the learners?

2. Is the language difficult to learn and master considering that the students are in the school premise for more than 8 hours every day.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study confine in one public school institution and it only focused on language proficiency with 80 participant from the different grade level in Junior High School. From grade 7, grade 8, grade 9 and grade 10. It consist of 40 males and 40 females in random selection.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The rationale for conducting this research is to exhume further the sources of the problem practicing in English communication. And to provide information and idea why these language is difficult to practice though it was exercise in the daily setting. To shed light on the factors and to do a better understanding why English language using in oral communication is a problem. Decade ago it is said that the Philippines is one of the English speaking nation in Asia but reckoning the present it seems that English language is already is already deteriorating.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Rhetorical – the art of effective or persuasive speaking
Proficiency – skills, competence and experience.
Language aqiusition

Chapter II
Research Method

RESEARCH DESIGN
The procedure use is quantitative approach it describe how environment affect the language acquisition, and obtain data from the problem being presented and justify why environment is a factor or barrier in language oral communication in Junior High School Student.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Survey is being conducted selected participant were give survey questionnaire. In the event that the respondent is minor they were given parental consent to avoid transgression in the students a piece of paper which include the purpose of the study.

DATA ANALYSIS

Sample of Questionnaire

Name:____________
Grade level________
Age _____________

Table 1 Show on how the English language being use and exercise.
Factors Always speak the language Often speak the
language Seldom speak the language Never speak the language
Home

Community

School

Peers

Doing this survey may obtain statistical data that may resulted English language as a barrier that constitute environmental factor has an impact in the difficulty in acquisition and learning the English language in rhetorical context.

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