Chapter 1 – Introduction
As indicated by (Sharpley 2002), tourism is one of the biggest and quickest developing enterprises and is a redirecting marvel that is of real significance. In Mauritius tourism can be considered as one among the primary monetary column. Throughout the years, tourism improvement has prompted an ascent in the quantity of business, way of life, preservation of recorded destinations and numerous infrastructural advancements.
Tourism is getting to be one of the world’s significant ventures. It isn’t just confined to activities in the hospitality segment itself, amusement and also transportation are likewise vital areas included, alongside settlement, attractions and different activities. Tourism is an exchange requiring a level of management and assessment by the nation’s government, which landed it in the economy unit (Simoni and Mihai, 2012). Most nations currently advantage monetarily from this developing area, with a developing readiness from the tourist’s part to fly to various destinations. The effects might be short or long term; immediate or backhanded; nearby, national, or worldwide; and positive or negative (Hunter and Green, 1995).
Tourism ends up being one of the key segments that drives the regions’ budgetary improvement. The guests’ costs on settlement, nourishment, shopping and relaxation, among others. Therefore, the techniques for effectively assembling, dealing with, separating and applying quantifiable data from visitors have been of fundamental noteworthiness to tourism specialists, approach creators and pros. Tourism can meet people’s expanding material and social needs. It can upgrade people’s personal satisfaction, extend their potential outcomes, enhance their knowledge, and cause social change.
For as far back as decades, Mauritius has been known as a marvellous goal, that is, lovely sandy shorelines, turquoise tidal ponds and an assortment of 5 stars resorts add to the high-class notoriety of this heaven goal. Notwithstanding, when you live on a little island, the maxim ‘what comes around goes around’ takes a radical new measurement. An ever increasing number of sightseers are visiting our island hence exhausting our common assets and expanding the rate of land contamination. In this way, as the tourism business is one of the mainstays of the Mauritian economy, it is the obligation of every inbound administrator to secure the ‘best end’ notoriety of tourism in our nation and makes each undertaking to guarantee that guided vacationer bunches are earth cognizant and approach with deference our beach front condition, natural life, sights and landmarks, social legacy and furthermore neighbourhood traditions and sensitivities.”
Tourism has likewise achieved another idea that is sustainable tourism development. In the (Bruntland report 1987), the WCED characterizes sustainable development as the advancement that addresses the issues of the present without trading off the capacity of future ages to address their own issues. Sustainable tourism improvement is likewise about including occupants in tourism growth. Sustainability and sustainable development are challenged terms, as sustainability can refer to pure monetary goals, overlooking parts of intensity, value, investment, assurance and utilization. (Font and Goodwin) comprehend sustainability in RT as a general goal, in light of financial, social and environmental manageability, referred to as the ‘three pillars’ or the ‘triple bottom line’. This definition still perceives economical growth as one key segment for being sustainable, however foresees that exchange offs should be made and that consolidating the three is certainly not a straight forward task (Goodwin, 2011; Font and Goodwin, 2012).
Sustainability with regards to tourism would imply that the vacationer business impacts emphatically on the Mauritian culture by being savvy and also ecological cordial. Sustainable tourism, in a more contemporary manner is introduced to as ecotourism which according to the Oxford online lexicon is by all accounts a term referring to the preservation of environment on a long-term premise with attempt to protect local wild life, and again as indicated by the Oxford word reference, it is by all accounts a term that has first been utilized and investigated by the Associated Press Newswire in the year 1980.
Two fundamental factors that may threaten sustainable tourism are political precariousness and natural issues. The magnificent setting of our nation is the thing that pulls in travellers to Mauritius: enchanting atmosphere, wild life and marine life. Tourism would never again be sustainable on the off chance that it wrecks the environment for which voyagers go to our nation.
The United Nations World Travel Organization, lined up with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), has made it its main goal for 2017 to bring issues to light on the capability of Sustainable Tourism to help create goals. With an excess of a billion worldwide voyagers travelling to the far corners of the planet in 2015, it has turned out to be inevitable for organizations, open division and vacationers to think about the 3 P’s (People, Planet and Profit) while voyaging. The point: to limit tourism’s negative effects on nature and boost the positive commitments it conveys to nearby networks.
There are different locales menaced; La Cambuse is a brook of wild character, connected to the marine stop of Blue Bay, under the risk of a noteworthy lodging venture. The shoreline of Le Bouchon, alongside “La Cambuse” is undermined by urbanization in the wake of the “Mon Trésor Smart city” project. The paleontological site of Mare-aux-Songes is debilitated by both the previously mentioned ventures. In St. Félix 31,4 sections of land (arpents) of shoreline de plage consumed for a lodging venture by “Clear Ocean Hotel and Resort”. Undermined by the “Brilliant City” venture by “Island Summer Palace Ltd”, the locale known as Trou Diable in Roches-Noires is presumably the vastest zone of the island still not manufactured, facilitating such an extraordinary biological community.
As far as tourism, support for the essential hypothesis of attitude can be clarified in that resident’s mentalities cannot just basically mirror the resident’s view about tourism and its effects, however can likewise demonstrate the aftereffect of communication between the latter’s perceptions and elements influencing their states of mind (Lankford et al., 1994). The impact components of occupants’ mentality are assorted; all the effect factors are factors that could change at various phases of tourism advancement and with various encounters. Despite the fact that the attitude research is problematic and needs to stay up with the latest analysis results at normal interims, understanding the occupants’ present points of view on nearby tourism improvement is important. In a sense, occupants’ impression of tourism can reflect how local people more often react towards visitors, their values.
Besides, resident’s cooperation and support assume a huge part in tourism advancement. (Long 2012) expressed that the tourism business depends on the connection amongst social and cultural structures. On the off chance that tourism improvement is spontaneous then it tends to be extremely critical. Thusly, it is vital to determine resident’s discernment toward tourism effects and this investigation goes for evaluating occupant’s state of mind towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Mauritius. In this study, resident’s mentality towards sustainable tourism advancement and impacts of tourism will be evaluated. This is for the most part to see whether the negative effects exceed the positive one. Likewise, it will likewise decide network interest, local’s support for tourism lastly propose a legitimate suggestion to eradicate the negative effects.
1.1 Problem Statement
Mauritius has been a vital tourism goal whereby the quantity of visitor’s entry for the initial nine months of 2014 was expanded by 4.5% to 725,621 tourists (Statistics Mauritius 2014). Throughout the years with the extension of the tourism business, the effects of tourism have drawn the consideration of numerous researchers. These effects as indicated by (Hunter and Green 1995) might be known as short or long term: immediate or roundabout; local national, or worldwide: and positive or negative. That is the reason: the idea of sustainable tourism advancement has been intended to make equity between economic, environmental and sociocultural effects. Thus, the investigation of resident’s attitude is a standout amongst the most valuable intends to have a superior comprehension about the distinctive tourism impacts. (Andriotis 2005) expressed that for long term and outstanding tourism development is merely vulnerable on host’s community perception towards tourism and travellers and along these lines ought to be created by the needs and desires of the host network, as resident’s attitudes is critical for visitor’s satisfaction and repeat visitation. (Sheldon and Abenoja. 2001; Swarbrooke, 1993). In short, it very well may be said that, for fruitful tourism to happen, specialists should consider expanding the positive effects while limiting the negative one.
It has been perceived that tourism development is a twofold edged sword for the host community (Wang et al. 2006). It doesn’t just create cost yet additionally incite costs. With the utilization of the social trade hypothesis, expenses and advantages have a connecting relationship in regards to occupant’s state of mind toward tourism development in Mauritius.
The issue with surveying the nearby community’s tolerance for tourism in a host destination is that reviews have been made just by western analysts, and this speaks to a snag while assessing the financial effects on environmental and social factors in the host destination. Our present investigation will rotate around the effect of tourism on the lives of the resident’s populace of an island destination where the effect of tourism is very noteworthy, given that it’s the principal monetary column and income generator of a developing country.
It is important to address and examine, past the monetary field, the approach in regards to the personal satisfaction of life of residents in a developing host destination, for example, Mauritius, in connection with the presence of tourists.
Along these lines, this study has been led to get a better idea of resident’s attitudes toward the effects of tourism and sustainable tourism advancement in Mauritius.
Chapter 2 – Literature Review
This part will focus around the theoretical aspect of the study. This will be an outline of the different examinations led on the issue, including all the conflicting outcomes. It is an investigation of the distinctive effects that impact the perceptions and attitudes of residents towards the development of sustainable tourism.
A literature review is a secondary source which helps to compare and to understand the many theories and methodologies used for the results of a specific topic.
Set the tourism industry is complex. Tourism is envisaged, interpreted and developed differently depending on the issues of the people because it is an abstraction of a wide range of consumer activities requiring products and services (leisure, commerce, craftsman…). Like what (OECD 1991) observes that “tourism is a concept that can be interpreted differently depending on the context: tourism can cover tourists, or what “the tourists, or workers who care for them, and so on. Similarly, (WTO 1995) defines tourism as “the activities of people travelling. and stay out of their usual environment for a consecutive year to of leisure, business and other purposes”, while the (WTO 1996) says that tourism is a rather general term that can refer to consumption tourists, to the production units providing goods and services including tourists, or even a set of legal units or areas “geographical linked in a way or another to tourists.”
To sum up in more concise terms, tourism can be defined as a set of socio-economic activities carried out by or for tourists. Those made by tourists correspond to what are the tourists, while those made for tourists correspond to what are other socio-economic institutions to meet the needs of the tourists. That deserves to be pointed out, is that so defined tourism is neither a pure phenomenon of the demand or supply (UN and world Organization of tourism, 1993).
2.1 Defining Tourism and Tourism Development
Numerous tourism scholastics have conceded that tourism is a difficult phenomenon to depict as it speaks to an amalgamation of goods and services including hospitality co-made to deliver the last tourism encounter. As indicated by the (UNWTO 2013), tourism is the development that comprises of voyaging and remaining in a place that is very surprising from common environment for not over a year with the end goal of relaxation, diversion business, and some more.
The tourism business is one of the biggest single industries overall which has been censured for its unsustainable practices, for example, the deterioration and misuse of the earth and local populace; little promise to specific destinations: control through vast transnational enterprises: unsustainable arranging of physical components, little activity for awareness raising and usage of sustainable activities just for good exposure and decreasing costs (Swarbrooke. 1999: Mowforth and Mum. 2009). Yet, (Mowforth and Munt 2009) pointed out that apart from unsustainable practices there are substantially more illustrations cases of good ecological practice joined by benefit.
2. 2 Sustainable Tourism and Sustainable Development
The UNWTO characterizes sustainable tourism as – tourism that assesses its present and future monetary, social and environmental effects, tending to the requirements of visitors the business, the earth and host networks”. The term practical tourism is embraced from (Inskeep’s (1991), who characterizes economical tourism as being focused to secure the earth meeting fundamental human needs, advancing current and intergenerational value and enhancing the personal satisfaction surprisingly. (Inskeep 1991: 495).
Sustainable tourism should make utilization of insignificant natural assets regarding socio cultural genuineness of local communities lastly guaranteeing nonstop monetary development. To accomplish sustainable tourism, it ought to be a consistent procedure that controls the effects whereby actualizing distinctive measures.
Sustainable tourism ought to likewise keep up important experience to the traveller and principle an awesome level of satisfaction, and additionally advancing sustainable tourism methods among them. For tourism development to be sustainable, (Butler 1991) recommended that strategies ought to be all around composed, there ought to be exceptional planning, and acknowledgment of impediments on development, and a long-term vision ought to be proficient amid the planning gage.
2.3 Local Resident as stakeholder in the tourism industry
A stakeholder can be classified ‘we any gathering or person who can influence or is influenced by the accomplishment of the association’s points and targets’ (Freeman 1984. p.46). In tourism development, different performing actors are included, for example, governments, host communities, private sectors and so on. In actuality (Theobakl 2005), specify that for tourism advancement to happen in any destination the investment of all partners for the most local resident’s contribution in decision-making of the tourism improvement process is of awesome significance.
As indicated by (Swarbrooke 1999), community cooperation is a focal angle in sustainable tourism improvement and locals ought to adequately be associated with tourism planning and they should be ready to keep up the local tourism industry and its exercises. Moreover, the idea of community participation has been contended in a few researches about for a few reasons (Hall, 2000).
Right off the bat, have contribution being developed procedures is probably going to energize towards taking compelling choices and motivate local residents. Also, host population will probably contribute more in safeguarding nature and their environment. Thirdly as per (Simmons 1994), being a service industry, tourism requires the altruism and co-activity of host networks. Finally, satifaction among visitors is probably going to be uncommon particularly where local people’s help is included and they take pride in their tourism (Hall 1999).
2.4 Worldwide Significance of Sustainable
Tourism Sustainable tourism can assume an essential part to be a powerful instrument for understanding the Millennium Development Objectives. It is turned out to be noteworthy in tending to the principal objective connected to poverty alleviation: giving sustainable improvement chance to secluded, poor societies, even in the most difficult to reach wide open areas. Globally, tourism contributes altogether to the countries’ gross national item (GNP). The sector delivers roughly 4.4% of the aggregate (GDP) and employs around 200 million individuals. That is the reason, the yearly number of visitors to global destinations has expanded continuously from 25 million to 808 million somewhere in the range of 1950 and 2005 accordingly. (WTO, 2006.) Moreover, this segment delivering immense measure of income which is more than US$800 billion (WTO, 2006). It is seen from African mainland that the entry of international tourists has expanded quickly from 28 million to 40 million somewhere between 2000 and 2005 while the yearly normal development is 5.6 % a year, contrasted with worldwide and rate is 3.1 a year – brought about a multiplying of receipts from US$10.5 billion to US$21.3 billion. Tourism can assume the crucial part to enhance the general financial improvement through the facility of streets, phones, piped and treated water supplies, waste disposal and reusing and sewage treatment and that may expand more open doors for further development and make benefits for the division and it might support in the sustainable management of ensured zones and support the insurance of normal assets as local communities can understand the cost of their advantage through benefit sharing. All exports of services which tourism makes that is almost 40% and making it one of the prime gatherings of global exchange, with more potential that may profit poor nations. (WTO, 2006.)
2.5 Benefits of Sustainable Tourism
Tourism isn’t just the world’s quickest developing industry yet in addition a noteworthy wellspring of wage for some nations. Sustainable tourism gives numerous occupations chances to local individuals which enhance the personal satisfaction, diminish poverty and help nearby economies (Tourism Australia, 2013.) It shields and jam biodiversity, save regular assets for future age, hold characteristic cycles in marine waterfront biological community and secure the nature of the earth by ecological system and decline working expenses by taking activities that reduce waste, water and energy consumption. Moreover, it supports to advance development and new reasoning in the advancement of sustainable goods and services and permit to take the change of future chances. (Tourism Australia, 2013.) Moreover, it extends investment opportunities with long term sustainability plans and increment long term productivity by setting designs in a place. It protects the destination allure and achieves efficiency and sparing business makeover in exercises. But every one of these tourists can accumulate an incredible nature of involvement in their life which invigorate their brain and persuade to make the outing frequently. (UNWTO, 2005.)
2.6 THE THREE PILLERS OF SUSTAINABILITY
Sustainability has three crucial pillars which ought to be considered for the improvement of tourism. The idea of the three mainstays of sustainability has been acknowledged everywhere throughout the world. The tourism connected affiliations need to take a gander at the three mainstays of economical tourism. These are social, environment and economic sustainability. These three zones ought to be thought about by communities, organizations, and people. The primary point of sustainable improvement is to guarantee a clear and dependable harmony between these three measurements. Sustainable tourism management must be effective if the between connections between every one of the three measurements are acknowledged (Swarbrooke, 2002. 47.)
2.7 Tourism Impacts
The tourism industry is one of the extensive somas of earning foreign currency and generating revenue. Thus. according to (Huang 1993) tourism impacts are brought about by the process or the influence of tourism development and are the result of net changes within the host communities. Tourism has both negative as well as positive impacts on the local community and the environment. (Mathieson and Wall 1982) argue that tourism impacts results from multiple interdependence among host communities. tourists, and natural environments. This can be explained in through components that is, economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts.
2.7.1 The Economic aspects
Several studies have shown that in general, the economic aspect is what brings a welcoming community to adopt a positive attitude in respect of the inbound tourism (King et al, 1993). Generally, the economic dimension is the main cause of the positive attitudes of the residents. However, they have also the ability to distinguish between the positive and negative aspects of tourism their community and thus to assess the context in which the industry is developing.
One of the most appreciated aspects by residents of this drop is the creation of employment opportunities (Aguiló, Barros, Garcia and Rosselló, 2004, Andereck and Nyaupane, 2011, Sharma and Carter, 2007, Gursoy et al., 2002, Haralambopoulos and Pizam, 1996.)
(Yoon, Gursoy, ; Chen, 2001) suggests that tourism is a source income for locals.
Residents also benefit from tourism to the extent that their gives more possibilities of negotiation and in this way create a local business environment.
Residents also noted that tourism will be a series of improvements in community infrastructure and public facilities (Andereck and Vogt, 2000; Andereck et al. 2005)On the other hand, the less valued tourist aspect for them is its seasonality (Bujosa ; Rosselló, 2007).
On one hand, tourism creates employment opportunities but, on the other hand, also requires to deal with both irregular on the needs of workforce. The compromise is clear: If there is no activity, not of compensation, tourism workers will have to find another activity or benefit from an allocation of unemployment for the month not seasonal (Cerezo ; Lara of Vicente, 2005).
It is obvious that the tourist activities influences the cost of living (Bujosa and Rosselló, 2007, Liu and Var, 1986, McGehee and Andereck, 2004 and Saveriades 2000), which has increased the prices of goods and services in general, led to a increase in the cost of goods and services the standard of living rises, as inflation (Akis et al., 1996) andtherefore, property value and housing price increase and including the value of the land, which has affected a large part of the population to buy their first house (Anton ; Gonzalez, 2008).
The overall assessment of this impact is generally positive, because the residents acknowledge that the tourism industry enriches the fabric of the Community (Andereck et al., 2005). Studies show that the benefits economic are the hottest and the most wanted by the local people (Akis et al., 1996, Liu et al., 1987, Ritchie, 1988).
As a general rule, the economic benefits have an important influence on the attitudes of locals towards tourism because they are likely to improve it.
Profits or increases in the local economy (Gursoy et al., 2002; Lost and al.,. 1990) for this reason, almost all studies examining between benefits economic gain and attitudes towards tourism have indicated a relationship positive (Allen, Long, lost and Keiselbach, 1988, Davis, Allen and Cosenza, 1988)
2.7.2 The Social aspects
Tourism has an effect on the local sociocultural characteristics, affecting the habits, customs, social life, beliefs and values residents of the tourist destination.
On the sociocultural interaction between local residents and tourists can lead to social and cultural opportunities or, in the otherwise, generate feelings of distress, pressure, congestion, etc. at different times in the life of the inhabitants, threatening their cultural identity and their social reality.
Some studies have shown that the residents positively appreciated the fact thattourism has a positive influence on the services offered by the community (Andereck and Vogt, 2000, Andereck et al, 2005). It creates recreational opportunities (Andereck and Nyaupane, 2011, Andereck and Vogt, 2000). It stimulates the cultural activities, interest for the maintenance and preservation of buildings historical and archaeological sites (Akis et al, 1996, Korça, 1996, Liu et al..,).
From a social point of view, the locals may recognize that tourism is increasing
delinquency and vandalism (Haralambopoulos and Pizam, 1996, Dogan, 1989,)
(quoted in Andereck et al., 2005), serious crimes. It also results in an increase of the drug use as well as alcohol consumption and finally, tourism can lead to prostitution (Liu and Var, 1986, Sheldon and Abenoja, 2001).
The attitudes of residents towards the socio-cultural impacts of tourism have been
widely studied. However, this research has produced results contradictory. Some studies report that residents have also tendency to perceive negative socio-cultural aspects (Andereck and) Al., 2005; Andriotis, 2005), while others argue that tourists consider tourism as offering various benefits to their community (Besculides et al., 2002). A possible direct relationship was observed between the positive assessment of the socio-cultural impacts and support for tourism.
However, other studies suggest that the development of tourism brings probably benefits to the host community, but also social costs (Gursoy et al., 2002, Teye, Sönmez and Sirakaya, 2002, Tosun, 2002). Therefore, there is no consensus on this spin-off and studies suggest that, according to the context and circumstances in which tourism is growing. This will, to a greater or lesser extent, affect the appearance sociocultural.
2.7.3 The Environmental aspects
Tourism can be a reason of protection and preservation of resources but also can damage or even destroy because it is often developed in attractive but fragile environments.
Residents also identify environmental in duality their community: positive and negative (Liu and alii, 1986, Liu et al, 1987, Yoonet al., 2001). Residents appreciate the fact that tourism helps to conserve resources natural.In addition, he embellishes the image of their city and their environment.
However, some studies show, that tourism can be a source of pollution (Johnson et al, 1994, Yoon et al., 2001) and garbage and above all, he recognizes the overcrowding and congestion (Andereck and al., 2005, Brunt and Courtney, 1999, Johnson et al..,) and, therefore, the effort must be the settlement in the facilities and public resources.
Many studies (Bujosa ; Rosselló, 2007) identify the negative aspects or the concerns of the residents for the environment. However, even if this dimension is important for the community, as demonstrated by the study Liu and Var (1986), it is not significant enough to make them loans to lower their standard of living. It seems that residents prefer support
Tourism, and highlight the benefits rather than damage environmental.
(Akis, et al 1996, Easterling 2004 and Harill 2004) suggest that tourism has become one of the world’s rapid growing sectors pursued by many destinations for its economic benefits. As a concluding note it can be said that residents seem to be are concerned about tourism development whether it is positive or negative impacts. If all the stakeholders work together then surely the wonky will be able to achieve sustainable tourism development. (Ap 1992) suggested that residents’ attitudes towards tourism depended on the exchange between a resident and a tourist.
Chapter 3 – Research Methodology
This chapter gives an overview of what type of techniques was used in this study and how the data was compiled to get the intuited information to meet the objectives. The research method chosen is very important to determine the answers you will need at the end of survey. Choosing the right type of method for your study will help you to get the right answers and the right information needed.
Research methodology ‘is a method to solve the research problem systematically and it is a science of learning how research is carried out scientifically’.
Concerning this research paper, the research method used is a mixed method which leads to both quantitative (which emphasises on the collection of numerical data) and qualitative answers (This is based on words, feelings, emotions and other non-numerical and unquantifiable elements. Qualitative data cannot be analysed by mathematical techniques). Data was collected through a set questionnaire containing close ended (which can be answered by only a set number of answers).Open ended questions were asked separately during the interviews to get more in depth answers and to have a better understanding of what Mauritians resident’s thoughts about sustainable tourism and this way it is will be easier to determine their attitudes towards it.
A face to face interview has been conducted with hotel’s employees, people in the tourism industry and hospitality’s students to know about the resident’s perception of sustainable tourism development, that is whether they are fully aware or not of what is happening on the island. The population size for the interview is 10 interviewees (Hotel’s employees, hospitality’s students and other sectors). The advantages of face to face interview are; more and in-depth information can be obtained There is greater flexibility as the opportunity to rearrange questions is always there, in case of unstructured interviews.
However, the drawbacks for face to face interview are: it is a very costly, especially when the sample is large and wide. It is time consuming when the sample is large and needs to recall upon the respondents arc necessary’.
3. 1 WHERE IS THE STUDY CONDUCTED: MAURITIUS
There have been several studies mostly conducted in developed destinations around the world analysing residents’ perceptions and attitudes towards tourism impacts, in the United Stated of America (Long, Perdue ; Allen, 1990; McCool ; Martin, 1994; Sharma ; Dyer, 2009) and Australia (Raymond ; Brown, 2007). But fewer have been carried out in fragile and developing destinations. Recently, there is more and more attention focused on these evolving destinations, such as in Korea (Ko ; Stewart, 2002), in Turkey (Kuvan ; Akan, 2005), in Ghana (Amuquandoh, 2010), in Iran (Zamani-Farahan ; Musa, 2012) and in Mauritius (Nunkoo ; Gursoy, 2012).
This research is going to be focused on Mauritius Island’s residents. Mauritius Island is a very touristic destination with an increase of 3.6 % in tourist arrivals during the first quarter of 2017 and with 339 682 visitors against 327 836 for the same period in 2016. In addition to being a very safe country, this island regroups several high end luxury hotels and resorts, all surrounded by “heavenly” scenery and service. This is what makes Mauritius so appealing tourists coming from all over the world. Mauritius is home to 1,221,975 residents (population forecast for July 2017), in comparison to 1,345,000 tourists who visited Mauritius in 2017 (and a forecast for tourist arrivals of 1,425,000). The government was expecting 2 million tourists annually since 2015. For the government to anticipate such a big number, the tourism industry in Mauritius could only be developing very fast. As a conclusion, the tourism industry occupies a crucial role within the Mauritian community; tourists are very present and are becoming even more numerous compared to the local population. This shows just how important the tourism industry for the Island, if not one of the most important industries and economic pillars of the country. Mauritius went from being highly dependent on the agricultural industry and being a low income country to being a middle income country with the help of the growing tourism sector (Lasansky D, Medina, 2004). With tourism having such an important role in the economy, it is bound to have impacts on the local community, given that they’re the ones either working for the industry, involved in the community, not working in the industry and being affected by its impacts, or both working in it and being affected.
Several questions have been raised lately about the impacts of tourism development on the island and residents began to act and to take the floor. A recent movement titled “Aret kokin nu laplaz” was launched by local people who don’t agree with the use of local beaches tourist constructions.
This type of study in Mauritius is very important because the evaluation of the perception of residents on the impacts of tourism will contribute to the development of tourism in the long term. Ignoring the perceptions of these residents, won’t lead to the expansion of these last, or worse, lead to more negative incidents. Research on the subject will also avoid other conflicts, that may occur between locals and tourists, and no one wants such a consequence in a country dependent on tourism, and whose economy is dependent on the industry.
Work in a spirit of openness environmental long-term will feature a harmonious space both for tourists and for residents.
Aim for a sustainable tourism sector will also participate in the awareness populations, and education on how to preserve the product contributing to the economic growth of their countries, and which concern the tourists, strongly draw their attention to respect for the destination that they visit.
3.3 Research Design
According to (Churchill and lacobucci 2002), a research design is a process that involves having important decisions about the main concern being given to a series of dimensions of the research process, the purpose what and who will be stud ‘ h to be used for practical data collection and analysis. For this secondary data have been used.
The primary data can result from collecting questionnaires observation techniques, and online surveys. For this study, questionnaires and interviews were mainly used to collect the required data. On the other hand, the secondary data were collected via internet, online journal articles from Science Direct, Sage publication, Emerald, Ebsco magazines and books. Thus for this study, a mixed method has been used to better evaluate the answers of the respondents.
3.4 Questionnaire Design
(Dillman to Whiten 2000), questionnaires are considered to be a well-established collecting data within social science research. Questionnaire is a set of questions that has been prepared to ask questions and collect answers from respondents relating to research area. A questionnaire ‘is consisted of a set of questions typed or printed in a definite order on a form’ Questionnaires therefore tend to be used for descriptive or explanatory research.
For a survey to be successful, it should be well designed, simple and clearly shown why this study is being taking place. The goal of the questionnaire is mainly to know the awareness of residents towards Sustainable Tourism at in Mauritius. The questions set were mainly to know whether residents knowledge on sustainable tourism development, whether local government is develop the tourism industry in a sustainable way, whether they are active in participation and whether they support the tourism industry, the opinion of residents towards the positive and negative impacts of tourism, to know about community participation in decision making process. And finally a very important section that is the demographic part such as gender, age, group, level of education, occupation, dependency of tourism and length of tourism. All the above sections in the questionnaire will help to assess the resident’s attitude towards sustainable tourism development. The copy of the questionnaire is attached in the appendices.
3.5 Sample Size
A sample can be defined as a small group chosen from the survey population and a way to make general statement about the whole survey population based on the responses of only a small percentage of the total survey population. (Ken Brown. p.420). Currently Mauritius has a population of 1,268,315 inhabitants. Thus, for this study the targeted survey population was mainly Mauritians and the sample size was 150 residents.
The targeted population was from different parts of the island, mainly from coastal areas such as Flic-en- Flac, Blue Bay, Riambel, Grand Baie, Flacq, Chamarel Le Morne and so on. These areas were chosen because there are many sites of attraction and local residents have the opportunity to get in contact with them as well as they can see the impacts from a broader perspective. There they will be able to answer in a proper manner with their daily experiences of life.
For this study, simple random sampling method was use where everybody has an equal chance of participating. Everyone can answer the questionnaire provided they are willing to. Thus, questionnaires were distributed among different age group, gender, communities and so on. Regarding the qualitative method, it was more in depth in the view of understanding why these residents gave the answers they did, and what is the depth of the issue with tourism’ impacts on the community. This will be done through a maximum of 10 interviews within the sample of people interviewed for the survey.
3.6 Pilot testing
The questionnaire was tested through a pilot survey before going to the respondents. Fifteen employees were selected for the pilot test of the questionnaire. It was done to gain appropriate answers that were in line with the objectives of the study and also to test the comprehensiveness of the questionnaire by the respondents and the structure of the questions.
3.7 Time Frame
The surveys as well as the interviews were made as from July to August The surveys were done through SurveyMonkey.com and were shared on social platforms and sent through email. The interviews were done face to face with the candidates in the street, at school, in a hotel and a few through Skype. The surveys were posted at the same time during the day, however, the interviews were made at different times, some during the morning, others during the afternoon, etc. Some people weren’t available at the time of the interviews, which is why they took place at different hours and during different days of the week. It took approximately three weeks to collect all the answers for the surveys and two weeks to collect those of the interviews
3.8 Data collection
Questionnaires used for this study was mainly distributed face to face whereby a small informal conversation can be done to give the respondent an encouragement to fill them. Most of the respondents were youngsters that are 18 years old and above as they have a broader perspective of what is going on in the country. There were 150 questionnaires that were distributed and out of this 100 questionnaires were completed successfully. The survey began on 1st July and ended on the 1st August. These questionnaires were distributed among students, relatives and colleagues of my internships for about three weeks. Then, the rest where distributed among professionals, unemployed, entrepreneurs and so on in different corner of the island. Those respondents were people passing by the street, beaches, the airport, supermarkets and shopping malls like Bagatelle. Shoprite and Jumbo. This was mainly to avoid bias and to obtain good result regarding the demographic factors. Therefore, the response rate was not reached and the remaining questionnaires were either incorrectly filled up or were left unanswered. Regarding the qualitative method, it was more in depth in the view of understanding why these residents gave the answers they did, and what is the depth of the issue with tourism’ impacts on the community. This will be done through a maximum of 10 interviews within the sample of people interviewed for the survey.
3. 9 Why the Mixed Method?
Picking both methods for such research is wise in a sense that this is a social issue. Quantitative research requires numbers and statistics. It is a fixed responses-based method of research enabling the researcher to gather structured facts. It is not an in-depth method as it leaves out some important information, which cannot be “measured” in some cases. Qualitative research methods allow more in-depth data collection; they’re exploratory and enable the researcher to assess the reasons why, opinions and other matters, which cannot be measured by statistics because it is not enough. While surveys in quantitative research are limited, with structured answers not allowing people to explain their views and opinions, interviews in qualitative research allow for more insight, they’re more subjective and focus on people’s experience of things. Choosing both methods is crucial because economic matters are involved as well as social matters. The mixed research method originated in social sciences and helps gather important information, which results in a more complete analysis of data. The qualitative research method can be used in this case to analyse and explain the quantitative data collected. Statistics and numbers collected will be interpreted through the qualitative method in order to analyse the residents’ personal experiences and why their answers from the quantitative surveys lead to the statistics given. Also mixing both methods enables a comparison between both and an understanding their differences and limitations, the latter proving how much using them both for a social research is important. Conclusion: this mixed research method enables a level of validation of the matter at hand. Both methods will validate each other and allow for a solid and relevant foundation. Why research on the issue? Multiple studies were conducted in the aim to assess what the residents’ perceptions are, without really looking into “why” these residents perceive sustainable tourism development the way they do. And this is primarily due to the choice of research methods used in the studies conducted.
3 .10 Limitations of the Study
Every study has its own limitations as the aims of the study may vary from societies to societies. For instance, regarding the study of resident’s attitude toward sustainable development in Mauritius, many inhabitants were unaware of the sustainable tourism development concept. Thus, while administrating the questionnaires some wording had to be explained to them to make it easier for them to understand. Using a mixed method was difficult because it wasn’t a qualitative questionnaire with open ended questions, but rather a questionnaire with close ended questions AND interviews reviewing past results with in-depth questions. Distributing the surveys got limited to 100 answers which could be analysed, and the rest was blocked by the website, unless it was paid for. The questionnaires had to be sent in two times because it generally did not accept more than 10 to 12 questions. This was definitely going to be very costly. In addition, working people took relatively more time to return the questionnaire due to lack of time. During the survey some respondents were also not willing to answer the questionnaire as they did not find it important and they did not want to lose their time. Finally it can also be noted that certain respondents were not so sure about their answers and they had to consult their friends or relative nearby to ask for advice especially where all the tourism impacts arc found. This shows that they did not reveal their true feelings and as such this may affect the actual remits. The realization of a study on the perceptions of residents as to the impacts of tourism on their quality of life, was quite difficult. First of all, this kind of topic is social, so people when questioned, there is necessarily the difficulties in communication, because each has person his or her own psychology to express an opinion or an idea.
Chapter 4 – Analysis and Interpretation
The purpose of this chapter is to treat and analyze the data collected from both the quantitative and qualitative methods. We interpreted the results and concluded findings according to each research method used. As mentioned in the methodology chapter, data from each method was analyzed individually first, in order to compare both, make a correlation between them (if there was any) and come up with a general conclusion. Analysing the results was also done in order to examine the current situation of residents faced with sustainable tourism development and research if there are any new theories appearing through their attitudes and perceptions.
4.1. DESCRIPTIVE OF FINDINGS
4.1.2 FINDINGS OF THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
1) Candidates’ profiles
A general overview of the candidates’ profiles features that among 100 people who have answered the questionnaire, 50% were males and 50% were females. 81% are between 18 and 25 years old, 15% are between 25 and 35 years old, 2% are between 35-45 years old and 2% is between 45-50 years old and older. This displays a quite young population of participants. Regarding level of education, the lowest response rate was from primary level 3 % only, 28% secondary school, 10 % enrolled in technical schools, the highest response of 55% of those studying a bachelor degree and finally 10% holding a masters or doctorate.
In addition, for occupation, mostly students responded to the questionnaire with a percentage of 48% followed by other occupations; professionals with 34%, both managers and unemployed people with an outcome of 7%, retired 0% and last but not least 6% for other.
2) Economic benefits
In regards of the residents’ answers to tourism being economically beneficial to them, 70% among 100 people answered yes and the rest (30%) claimed that tourism wasn’t in any way economically beneficial to them.
3) Sustainable Development Investigation
People had different definitions of sustainable tourism and the opinions diversified though the 4 answers are quite similar. The majority 50% opted for protecting the resources for future generations followed by eco-tourism development 45%, 31% for protecting and preserving the environment and lastly 25% for Green Tourism. They had the choice to tick all the boxes as they could pick one, two or three as well to come up with the best definition of sustainable tourism. Among the 100 people, there is no doubt that Mauritians are aware that not much has been done yet to fulfil the needs of tourism, the environment and host communities. 66% poorly feel, 10 % very poorly feel it meaning that there is still a long way to go sustainable on the island. Only 4% vert strongly feels it followed by 22% who strongly feels that sustainable is not suffering. Opinions are mixed for the local government question is he/she willing to develop tourism in a sustainable way in Mauritius? 40% replied yes whereas 63% replied no.
Mauritians, still feel that the government should take more initiatives and be more engaged in the process of becoming eco-friendly.
4) Tourism Development
This question’s purpose was to know if residents think tourism is growing too rapidly. Also, saying that tourism is developing TOO fast in Mauritius shows that it’s a negative thing. 39% of 100 participants agreed that it was developing too fast, 44% answered no and the remaining 17% didn’t have an opinion on the matter. Those who didn’t have an opinion on the matter either didn’t care about tourism’s development because they weren’t working in the industry or simply didn’t have an opinion.
5) Community Participation
99% responded yes to any tourism development occurring in their community, only 1% answered no. It is very important to inform local resident about any development that is taking place. if the government want sustainable practices as local are consider as major stakeholder in the tourism industry. (Brown 2006) suggests that there is a sense of community pride when residents are informed.
The above figure shows that most of the respondents were not very active in community participation with a percentage of 66%. This is mainly because of their hectic life or simply because a lack of interest. In addition, 22% were active in community participation, 4% were very active and 10% were not active at all. Community evolution is all about gathering a group of people to work together by addressing their main interests in the local society (Maser, 1997). Community participation is very important to have successful development and thus resident should actively participate.
6) Tourism Impacts
This question’s aim was to analyse the resident’s point of view regarding a movement launched indirectly against tourism’s negative impacts. This movement exists because the government decided upon privatizing public beaches in detriment of resorts, which of course contribute to the tourism industry. The majority answered that they were with the movement (44%), 38% do not agree with the movement and 18% do not know the movement exists.
40 % of the people interviewed said that they were, 60% answered that they weren’t in favour for further tourism development in Mauritius. It gives a better idea that locals manifest against tourist invasion on the island.
7) Rate of participation of private sectors and local entrepreneurs
The above bar chart tells about the main bottlenecks promoting tourism activities
in Mauritius. The majority of the respondents agreed on the careless behaviour of the government policy and implementation with a percentage of 50%. Second position with 45% the careless behaviour of local people and tourism organisations. 31% stated the lack of government apprehension. 25% mentioned all of the above.
8) Ecological awareness
The above bar chart illustrates the ecological awareness in order to preserve the environment and natural issues. So that, the tourism related organizations can use them in a sensible way rather than being wasted. From the above mentioned chart it can be seen, 66 percent of respondents think that they have limited (satisfactory) knowledge about ecological awareness and 10% think they have no knowledge about the subject which is terrible., whereas 4 percent of respondents think that they are excellent in ecological issues. Similarly, 22 percent of respondents think that they are good on ecological awareness.
4.1.3. FINDINGS OF THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
After assessing the answers to the quantitative research, all we can conclude is presented through numbers and statistics, therefore several theories appear. It was deemed necessary to go through with the qualitative research, interviewing some of these residents who had already answered the survey, and asking them to develop their answers and explain them in-depth, in order to understand who answered positively to which questions and to check if the theories were rational enough. The interviews’ questions were made with the intention of exploring furthermore some of the surveys’ answers.
1. With what words or expressions can you describe the concept of sustainability?
2. How much sustainability is important in the tourism industry in Mauritius? What is your point of view on the issue?
3. Why is tourism beneficial to you? If not give examples
4. Are you in favour or not of sustainable tourism development?
5. Would you like to work in the service industry in the near future? Why or not? Explain your line of reasoning.
Profiles varied between people working in the tourism industry, students in tourism and hospitality management schools and people working in other sectors. 1) Among the nine residents interviewed, the majority are in favour of further sustainable tourism development. 1) They all came up with different definitions and concepts of sustainability but they are all linked in one way. 2) Some residents answered that sustainability on the island was important while other were sceptic stating that we need to make the changes now, or else what’s the point. 3) All the 9 interviewees had diverse opinions how tourism is beneficial to them; by awareness, for the local economy, creation of direct and indirect jobs, training for youngsters 4) All residents interviewed were not in favour of Tourism development. Some explained that it’s a major economic sector in Mauritius, if not the most important one. However, they would have preferred if it didn’t come at a social cost. 5) Most of the residents interviewed answered that they were already in the industry, some answered it depends on the salary, promotions, family-time while others showed no particular interest.
4.2. INTERPRETATIONS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
After analysing the several answers from the different profiles, we noted that the theory concluded earlier was confirmed. A Mauritian resident can have any job ranging from the hospitality and tourism sector to the medical field, they see tourism as economically beneficial to the country, but not necessarily to them, and therefore they are in favour to its development, even though it might not be personally beneficial to them as a person. They particularly mentioned that sustainable tourism development is a must in Mauritius, before it’s too late, the government must take necessary actions and if measures are not taken what’s the point of going green?
Here are two different profiles working in different industries, showing two different perceptions in regards to Tourism impacts.
1. To be able to maintain something at the same rate. Some words that I can think of are to protect the environment and conserve energy.
2. I think it is important because being sustainable in the tourism industry means making sure that with all the developments the environment is still looked after. This also means that being sustainable you can provide jobs for more people.
3. It is because I work in the tourism environment and it is the tourism industry that is providing a lot of jobs lately and hence beneficial to me and many others.
4. I am because this means more jobs for more people although I think the government should ensure that they keep the idea of sustainable intact in the sense of keeping the environment protected and ensure it is a pleasurable development for locals and tourists.
5. I am already in the service industry and as I enjoy it I would love to remain in the industry. I think it is a chance to make a change and show people what Mauritius is all about and at the same time working with customers is a pleasant experience because I guess it is another satisfaction that people who work in it will understand!
1. Sustainable development is based on a long-term approach which takes into account the inextricable nature of the environmental, social and economic dimensions of development activities.”
2. If Mauritius wants to maintain its competitive edge, I firmly believe that sustainable tourism – tourism that provides fresh, engaging experiences with a minimal ecological footprint – is the way to go. Because our environment deserves it. But also because, increasingly, travellers demand it.
3. Tourism does not benefit me personally, I am not in this sector. Tourism is expanding in Mauritius, though they need to rebrand and give a new image to Mauritius with distinct wow factors apart from the 3S. (sun, sea, sand)
4. Yes, as mentioned earlier, I am in favor of tourism development because it helps the country’s economy and is tourism is the main focus and most important sector. I do think tourism brings along many negative aspects such as pollution, congestion and parking problems, relatively the cost of living goes up and over-populated. The locals life are disrupted when visitors become a burden in their daily lives.
5. No, I have no intention joining the tourism industry. I am in the manufacturing industry. And I do believe if prompt actions are not taken quickly, the tourism industry will go down and this is already the case in terms of service, where Mauritius is no more recognised as the leader and main market for the Indian Ocean.
The perception that the residents have on sustainable tourism development can and will depend on the level of the impacts and their influence of the resident’s quality of life. Throughout the analysis of the findings, we realized that the residents’ perception of sustainable tourism development is influenced by the country’s economic dependence on the sector, which was not so apparent at the beginning. Their perception can change depending on the country’s economic dependence on the tourism industry as well as their own professional involvement in the sector. This lead to another hypothesis, in a country that is not economically dependent on the tourism industry, not many people would care about the development of the sector, but they would still care about the negative impacts it brings along.
The government involvement in the privatization of beaches also plays a crucial role in the impacts Tourism has on the country. If the government decides to expand the accessibility of the facilities to tourism’s interest, without taking the residents’ protests into consideration, there will be a backlash against Tourism (similarly to what’s happening in Barcelona with the anti-tourism marches and protests).
Chapter 5 – Conclusion
As a concluding note, it can be said that the main objectives of this research was to assess residents’ perception towards sustainable tourism development in Mauritius. All the chapters are dedicated to the aim of the research in this study. The main objectives of this study was to assess the level of consciousness of residents toward the concept of sustainable tourism development in Mauritius, to find out if positive impacts surpass the negative impacts, to assess community participation in the decision making process concerning tourism development and finally to propose a valid recommendation and solutions to remedy the issues.
To know more about residents’ perception toward the impacts and sustainable concept, a survey was carried out to better understand their attitude. Thus a questionnaire was designed where only 100 respondents could answer the questions due to some limitations, where not even a half of the population voiced out their opinions. In addition, time constrains also it was impossible to gather a much larger sample but this would have helped in a broader view of the perceptions of the residents. However, despite those challenges, the research was eventually done and it helped in the study process. The questionnaire’s purpose was to test the awareness of resident towards the concept of sustainable development, and finally what they perceived as positive and negative impacts.
Mauritius is a multi-racial island. Therefore, it is obvious that resident will have different impacts from tourism. From this study, it can be deduced that negative impacts outweigh positive impact. This shows that the host population perceive more negative impacts of tourism. This study gave an overview of how residents attitude differ from each other.
5.1 Summary of Literature Review
Prior to launching the research process, opposing different theories with one another and the multiple findings from the past studies allowed for a broader view of the subject and an understanding of the core of the issue with the subject at hand. It has been said through several studies that unless the residents benefit economically from the Tourism industry, they will have a negative perception of its impacts. Other studies showed that residents, even though involved in the industry, will still criticize the negative impacts it has on their quality of life. Some others demonstrated that residents not working in the industry do not really have an opinion on the matter, while others still do. The literature review helped immensely with the presentation of the subject and the different perspectives encircling it. The research in itself was quite challenging seeing as the subject is of a social nature and is subject to ongoing changes. However, the procedure went on smoothly, despite the numerous challenging situations and was deemed useful and efficient for the research paper.
5.2 Finding’s theory
Following the study results, the findings consisted of some quite contradictory answers. Residents’ perception of tourism impacts was highly influenced by the severity of the impacts on their quality of life, as well as some economic factors. All in all, Mauritian residents perceive tourism as economically beneficial to the country, but they still protest against the fact that it brings along several negative impacts nowadays, including the privatization of beaches. Their attitude is highly linked to the future government decisions in regards to tourism regulations.
As mentioned above residents perceive more negative impacts than positive one, it can be said that from the economic impacts it can be said that local entrepreneur should maintain price to the level where local resident can afford the product as well. If prices of product keep on increasing then this may give rise to more negative impacts. On the environment side, it can be said that pollution is inevitable in the tourism industry, yet it can be reduced by adopting more sustainable measures such as in some hotels they are already engage in recycling their waste. Rut it is equally important for the host to protect their environment by minimising any action that would contribute to pollution.
Tourism is a revolutionary phenomenon and it is bound to have both positive and negative impacts. Resident should he educated more about tourism and the sustainable tourism development concept. Sometimes resident have the tendency to misinterpret action and thus they should learn more about behaviours of tourism. Very often, they have the tendency to view tourism behaviours as negative influences. Thus, by organising campaigns, workshop or open days in tourism related place local can get the chance to mingle with them.
In addition, in Mauritius after the sugarcane. the tourism industry is considered as one of the most significant pillar for the economy. From the above study it can be noted that many residents agreed to the fact that tourism is a major source of generating income. Thus. the government should try to bring out innovative activity where the beauty of Mauritius cane be explored in an efficient manner. It is also the duty of the who population to protect their environment and also maintain a good relationship with tourist. Residents’ attitude towards impact vary from individual to individual.
There must be a mutual understanding between local residents and tourists and they should maintain cultural ethics.
Since various visitors have distinct views and ethnic belongings, it is primordial to obtain their views and perceptions and get them engaged in the drive to preserve the native environment.
Green tourism sensitisation campaigns ought to be set up to raise visitor awareness on the environment.
Tourism organisers need to ensure economic development does not harm the environment; as such a careful balance should be maintained.
The government should also consider the establishment of an advisory panel for proper management of sustainable tourism.
An effective framework should be designed and set up to boost sustainable tourism in Mauritius.
Further research can be carried out with additional sustainability indicators, for instance institutional as stated in (Cottrell, Vaske, & Roemer, 2013) and research can further be extended to other islands in the Indian Ocean to evaluate their perception towards sustainable tourism
Conducting newer studies is a long-term necessity; it could even assist the government in making decisions in regards to regulating the Tourism industry, because these studies are made of concrete statistics.
Political decisions can be taken to keep the environment healthy whereby there is no social crises, as this may prevent tourism to flourish. “A stable political environment would therefore be economically viable to the tourist industry in Mauritius
More and more tourists are visiting our island thus depleting our natural resources and increasing the rate of land pollution. Therefore, as the tourism industry is one of the pillars of the Mauritian economy, it is the duty of all inbound operators to protect the ‘top-end’ reputation of tourism in our country and makes every endeavour to ensure that guided tourist groups are environmentally conscious and treat with respect our coastal environment, wildlife, sights and monuments, cultural heritage and also local customs and sensitivities.”