Assessment of Green Building Materials
Student Names Reg. No.
Karunarathna W.W.M.M.M 172421 X
Bandara C.M.P.D 172608 D
Karunanayake K.A.D.P 172647 U
Kumara L.R.M.M.L 172659 H
Sanjayan N 172699 E
Yatiwella T.U 172722 V
Module Lecturers:Mrs. Tharusha RanadewaArch. I. P. DissanayakeMiss. Biyanka EkanayakeMiss. Fasna FaslyDate of Assignment: 14th July 2018
Date of Submission: 31st August 2018
Date of Presentation : 01st September 2018 and 08th September 2018
Department of Building Economics
University of MoratuwaCourse Work / Project Study Brief and Feedback Form
Degree programme title B.Sc. (Hons) in Quantity Surveying/B.Sc. (Hons) in Facilities Management
Module code and title BE 1102 – Building Materials
Module Lecturers Mrs. Tharusha RanadewaArch. I P DissanayakeMiss. Biyanka EkanayakeMiss. Fasna FaslyModule Moderator Dr. Thilini JayawickramaCourse work title Assessment of Green Building Materials
Set date 30th June 2018
Moderated date 10th July 2018
Date of assignment 14th July 2018
Date of submission 31st August 2018
Date of presentation 01st September 2018 and 08th September 2018
We confirm that the work submitted for this assignment is my / our own work
Students names / Signatures
Karunarathna W.W.M.M.M (172421 X)
Bandara C.M.P.D (172608 D)
Karunanayake K.A.D.P. (172647 U) Kumara L.R.M.M.L. (172659 H)
Sanjayan N. (172699 E)
Yatiwella T.U. (172722 V) Stamp for date receipt of the assignment
Assessment of Green Building Materials
To enhance knowledge on various green building materials used in the buildings
To improve the student’s familiarity in terms of selection and usage of green building materials
To analyse, report and present decisions made in a creative manner and to work in groups
In light of rising audience for “sustainable development”, constructing green buildings has come to forefront. Hence the use of green building materials and products is acknowledged as a promising strategy in the design of green buildings where the building owner and building occupants are benefited with the reduction of life cycle cost of the building, energy conservation, improvement of occupant health and safety and enhancing design flexibility. In the Sri Lankan context, recently there is a trend of adopting green concept for construction of buildings, due to numerous associated benefits that could be gained through green buildings (i.e. minimize the use of utilities such as energy and water thus creating a healthy, pleasurable environment with minimal emission of greenhouse gases).
Carryout a brief literature review on green building materials.
Students are required to select a Green certified building ( Eg: LEED, GBCSL, etc.) from one of the following categories
Students shall identify the green building materials used in the selected building.
Identify the benefits and drawbacks of using such materials to the occupants and the building owner. (Students shall identify these separately for the occupants and owners)
Propose and discuss alternative green materials and discuss selection criteria that can be used to improve the functions of the selected building.
Perform a comparison for the used and the alternative materials proposed for the selected building in terms of cost and occupational safety ; health (OSH).
Students are required to work in groups of six (06) members each and should submit a report and a presentation via Moodle.
The report shall be word processed and limited to 5000 words and shall contain;
Course work brief
Literature on green building materials
Case study (Preferably in chapters)
References (In accordance with APA referencing system)
Annexes (You are required to provide leaflets to demonstrate the findings of Tasks 05 and 06)
Each group is required to carry out a presentation of 12 minutes based on their study.
Individual Contribution will be assessed during the presentation.
REPORT FEEDBACK SHEET
Report Evaluation Group Basis Total
Presentation Introduction Literature review Green building materials used in the selected building Benefits and drawbacks Logical and Practical nature of selected alternative materials Cost comparison of used and alternatives OSH comparison of used and alternatives Conclusions References Annexes Maximum marks 05 05 10 15 10 10 10 10 10 05 10 100
Karunarathna W.W.M.M.M Bandara C.M.P.D Karunanayake K.A.D.P Kumara L.R.M.M.L Sanjayan N Yatiwella T.U Comments on report
PRESENTATION FEEDBACK SHEET
Presentation Evaluation Individual – 60% Group – 40% Total
Use of appropriate body language Confidence of talking in front of the audience Making of effective eye contact with audience Use of Voice Knowledge and comprehension Professional Attire Presentation without reading notes Structure of the presentation Contents of the presentation Creativity and using other related materials Time management Maximum marks 10 10 07 08 10 05 10 05 20 10 05 100
Karunarathna W.W.M.M.M Bandara C.M.P.D Karunanayake K.A.D.P Kumara L.R.M.M.L Sanjayan N Yatiwella T.U Comments on Presentation
SUMMARY OF COURSE WORK MARKS
Reg. No. Student name Report
(40%) Total marks (100%)
172421 X Karunarathna W.W.M.M.M 172608 D Bandara C.M.P.D 172647 U Karunanayake K.A.D.P 172659 H Kumara L.R.M.M.L 172699 E Sanjayan N 172722 V Yatiwella T.U Note: Late submissions are subjected to a penalty of five (5) marks for the first delayed 24 hours. Thereafter submissions will not be accepted and zero marks will be given.
(Lecturer/s) Signature Date Plagiarism, Cheating and Collusion
Plagiarism, cheating or collusion is regarded as a serious breach of the academic.
Students must carefully read the Academic Rules on Plagiarism, Cheating and Collusion.
RULES WILL BE STRICTLY ENFORCED
First of all, we would like to express our gratitude to Mrs. Tharusha Ranadewa and Arch. I. P. Dissanayake our module lecturers for giving their valuable advices and we humbly appreciate their dedication.
Successfully completion of any type of project requires help from number of persons. As well as, we would like to convey our sincere gratitude to Miss. Biyanka Ekanayake and Miss. Fasna Fasly for giving us your cooperation. Without your direction and proper guidance this would have been a little success.
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc523447534 h 12.0Literature Review on Green Building Materials PAGEREF _Toc523447535 h 22.1Resource Efficiency PAGEREF _Toc523447536 h 22.2Indoor Air Quality PAGEREF _Toc523447537 h 32.3Energy Efficiency PAGEREF _Toc523447538 h 32.4Water Efficiency PAGEREF _Toc523447539 h 33.0Green building materials used in MAS intimates Thurulie PAGEREF _Toc523447540 h 44.0Benefits and Drawbacks of Using Green Building Materials PAGEREF _Toc523447541 h 64.1Roof and Ceiling construction PAGEREF _Toc523447542 h 64.2Walls and Partitions Construction PAGEREF _Toc523447543 h 64.3Floor Construction PAGEREF _Toc523447544 h 74.4Doors and windows PAGEREF _Toc523447545 h 75.0Alternative Green Materials and Selection Criteria that can be Used to Improve the Functions of the Building. PAGEREF _Toc523447546 h 85.1Alternative Materials PAGEREF _Toc523447547 h 85.2Cost comparison of used and alternative materials PAGEREF _Toc523447548 h 86.0Occupational Safety and Health Comparison between Used Green Building Materials and Other Alternative Materials. PAGEREF _Toc523447549 h 96.1Zn?Al? as a roof cooling material. PAGEREF _Toc523447550 h 96.2Grass on the roofs. PAGEREF _Toc523447551 h 96.3Cement stabilized earth brick. PAGEREF _Toc523447552 h 106.4Glass PAGEREF _Toc523447553 h 107.0Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc523447554 h 108.0References PAGEREF _Toc523447555 h 119.0Annexes PAGEREF _Toc523447556 h 11
IntroductionIn Sri Lankan context recently there is a trend of adopting green concept for construction of building. Green building concept is achieved by using green building materials. Green building materials not injurious to environment, reusable material, less embodied energy material, and durable material. Resource efficiency, affordability, indoor quality, energy efficiency and conservation water are considered before selecting building material.
This reports contains about brief literature review of green building materials such as Earth bricks, cement stabilized earth bricks, durra panels, wattle and daub, wall bricks, power trowel floor, glazed concrete, vertical greenery, solar panels, paper insulation, triple glazed windows, Nano fiberglass.
In contrast, MAS Fabric Park Thulhiriya is our selected building which has Platinum awards in LEED certifications, National Green Awards 2012, Global Awards 2010 and Worldwide responsible Accredited Production Awards. It was reconstructed and completed in 2008 as a green building according to the criteria of LEED Certification. Following aspects are mainly at MAS Thurulie in order to enhance green building concept. Namely,
Energy efficient lighting
Native fauna and flora
Waste management system
Carbon neutral methods
Integrative process, location and transportation, sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, indoor environmental quality are main comprised of categories in LEED certification. So above aspects may fulfil these categories, and it helps to have green environment in MAS Thurulie.
By the way we have been identified green building material on MAS Thurulie and analyses benefits and drawbacks for building owner and occupancy separately In addition, we gave proposed alternative material for that building and compare with cost occupational safety of the building.
In this building they use various sustainability ideas and green building concepts for extension of the building life time. They used these ideas in site design, roof covering, internal building surroundings and external environmental preparation. These ideas and concepts are briefly described in this report.
Literature Review on Green Building Materials
The concept of green construction / green building has become a prime concern in construction industry while heading for the sustainable development. A green building is a building that, in its design, construction or operation, reduce or eliminates negative impacts, and can create positive impacts, on climate and natural environment (WGBC, 2016). Mallikage(2015) states that green buildings increase the efficiency of resources while sustaining natural resources for the future generation and reduce impact on human and environment. Any kind of building can be interpreted in to a green building by managing factors such as energy use, water use, indoor environmental quality and material selection.
It is more important to utilize suitable green building materials for buildings in order to maximize the sustainability of the particular building. Green building materials are highly environmentally responsible because their impacts are considered over the life of the project (Spiegel ; Meadows, 1999). Green building materials consist with renewable resources, rather than non-renewable materials.
Followings are some green building materials which are widely used in modern construction industry.
Insulated Concrete Form Foundations (ICFs)
Energy conserving windows
Vinyl single ply roofing membranes
It is necessary to considers on following factors when selecting suitable green materials for a project.
Indoor air quality
Resource EfficiencyResource efficiency means using available green building materials in an efficient way in order to become your building into green. These materials should be environment friendly and they should able to be used in order to reduce energy consumption, minimize waste of building and reduce greenhouse gases. The transportation energy and cost can be reduced when transporting those materials to the project site by using locally and regionally available building materials and components. Selected materials should be long lasted or conventional products with long life expectancies. The materials should be easily dismantled and reused or recycled at the end of their useful life.
Indoor Air QualityIt is important to select materials which emit few or no carcinogens and reproductive toxicants confirmed by the manufacture by using suitable testing methods. These materials should have least emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The materials should resist moisture or inhibit unnecessary growth of biological containments in buildings.
Energy EfficiencyWhen selecting green building materials for a particular building, the chosen materials should able to reduce the energy consumption of the building. For that the shape of the building and materials can be installed to get maximum natural light in to building. The requirement of electrical bulbs can be reduced by using transparent windows or glasses as wall for the building. In addition to that light colour paints can be used for walls and ceiling as finishes. By developing proper ventilation strategies, the necessity of Air conditioners are able to be reduced. Though it affects to reduce the energy consumption of the building. Using solar panel system is another popular method of saving energy. Electricity can be obtained free of charge by using these solar systems.
Water EfficiencyRain water harvesting takes a premier place considering on water conservation. Rain water can be stored in a separate tank and used those water for washing and toilet flushing purposes. The waste water can be minimized by using ultra low – flush toilets, low – flow shower heads and other water conserving fixtures. Hot water can be used in an efficient way by introducing recirculating system for centralized hot water distribution.
Green building materials used in MAS intimates ThurulieMAS intimates Thurulie, as a high performance green building which is certified by LEED (Platinum) is the World’s first purpose-built green factory for apparel manufacturing. In this plant, constructors have used natural lighting, solar power, cool roof, green roof, brick wall, renewable electricity and rainwater harvesting etc. towards resource optimization and eco system restoration. Cement stabilized earth brick, glass, reserved timber, gypsum, grass roof top were identified as sustainable materials which were mostly used to construct this factory.
36137852200275The eco bricks or cement stabilized earth bricks are the most important sustainable material in this building. The walls are built using that type of bricks. These type of brick has made using soil and less amount of cement by stabilizing. In fact, these eco bricks are not burnt bricks. Hence, “C” emission is also considerably low. The percentage of soil is higher than the percentage of cement. As well as there is no need of a cement plaster because of its architectural view. It also causes to keep this building in a “C” neutral position. Conventional method also somewhat connected with this brick work. A mortar with not only cement and sand but also comparatively high amount of soil has been used for the bonding of the bricks. Moreover, there is a high durability of this type of bricks and can be recyclable.
Furthermore, Glass is used as a sustainable material to get more natural lighting and to keep a touch always with the native fauna and flora. It has been used in large window panels and they bring in daylight reducing the amount of artificial lighting required. As a result of that low energy demand and law energy consumption will occur. As well as glass is a wholly recyclable material. As raw materials natural resources like sand, limestone are used to make glass. Lots of natural resources including the above raw materials can be saved by recycling the glass. Because of that, as an eco-friendly material they have gained more benefits from using glass.
Timber, as a sustainable material is also used for the different purposes such as to get aesthetic, natural appearance. But, it is an important fact that they have used reserved timber. It means the concept of replanting trees for the cutting trees to get timber has applied to the timber works in this building. In contrast, all the timber that they have used for constructing this factory, has been reserved by replanting trees. At the beginning of this MAS Thurulie 400 trees have planted and planting 200 trees is the target of them in this year. From that target 100 trees are already planted up to now. In that factory they have a section with a timber floor. But, that floor is constructed in the prohibited area for the outsiders. Because of that we were unable to visit that part hence, they have to follow rules on brand protection. However, timber is not only a recyclable and renewable but also it is energy-efficient to produce. In fact, it acts as a carbon store and reduce carbon emissions.
Moreover, Gypsum has been used for partitions and ceilings. It is used to control the sound and fire protection. Gypsum products are non-toxic in use and also recyclable. It can regulate humidity through moisture absorption.
right407733500There was a grass roof top and that green roof cuts off the solar radiation from above and eliminates heat-islands. As well as they used off-white Zn/Al for the roof and its solar reflection rate is high. Therefore, the “cool roof” with high solar reflectivity keeps the interiors naturally cool. Then the energy demand for cooling the interior is less because, interior heat generating is reduced by the cool roof system. From that also they are able to have the energy efficiency in that particular building.
Furthermore, they have used solar panels and LEDs in the factory. Hence they are not materials but are some techniques, used in this high performance green building in order to achieve the sustainability. In fact, bring and fix on site solar panels has been used to generate electricity in MAS Thurulie plant. Solar panels provide 10% of the plant’s power. Plant is powered by solar power and energy efficient renewable electricity from a mini-hydro plant in Deniyaya. Because of that also carbon is neutral in this particular factory. As well as they have used CFL T5 type bulbs for gain efficient lighting and nowadays they have largely used LED for that purpose.
Benefits and Drawbacks of Using Green Building MaterialsBuilding is an erection of a structure. When consider about a Green Building, it has different construction techniques and also ecologically responsible materials. However final output of these constructions should be benefited to both occupants and owners as well as it should be capable to fulfill their requirements.
In contrast MAS Thurulie is LEED PLATINUM certified Green Building in Sri Lanka which is more popular for intimates’ exports. In fact there are nearly five hundred employees and also nearly fifty staff members work in this factory. In order to enhance indoor environmental comfort for the users of this factory and also outdoor environment, green building materials are effectively provide its contribution to this building.
Roof and Ceiling constructionThere is a flat roof in MAS Thurulie and they prefer it to accommodate solar panels to generate electricity. Zinc aluminate is used to cover the roof because it do not absorb heat than other materials and it may provide optimal condition to work solar panels. Moreover Zn requires low energy cost in manufacturing process due to its low melting point. Not only that it is complexly recyclable like Al. Therefore this Zinc Aluminate cover can provide green attributes which are required for green building. In fact this may provide benefits to both occupants and owners by proving healthy indoor environment and low cost.
Moreover some parts of this roof is constructed using concrete and covered with grass. So it helps to decrease thermal insulation and also it provides comfortable indoor environment to the occupants. Even though it beneficial for occupants’ maintenance of this grass roof top is not much economical for owners.
Gypsum is the material which is used for ceiling which has recycled content as well as green building objectives. In fact it may not provide harmful toxic to human life and it has ability to improve friendly indoor air quality. Not only that it has acoustic insulation skill, though this is a factory it may absorb sounds when operating machines. So it is beneficial to occupants. When consider about maintenance, it requires low maintenance cost. Therefore using gypsum boards are also beneficial for owners.
Walls and Partitions ConstructionEarth bricks are used to construct non- load bearing walls. In fact technology of these brick construction is difficult and it requires skilled labours in construction phase. Therefore owners faced some difficulties on construction of these walls. Moreover earth bricks are not popular in the period of these construction, therefore there were few suppliers and it was costly than other bricks. So this material was not economical for owners of this building. Although it is not more economical it has more properties than other bricks which may beneficial in maintenance process. Such as these bricks have smooth surface and due to that it is not required plastering or painting. So it is beneficial for owners because it provide ease of maintain. Not only that, it can maintain two temperatures in outdoor and indoor skins. It controls both outdoor and indoor temperature in an effective manner which may healthier to occupants. This brick walls helps to improve aesthetic appearance of this building.
Partitions are made with gypsum. More importantly partition should be capable to fulfill its functional requirements. Such as light weight, fire resistance, sound insulation, easy to install etc. Those functional requirements may provide by gypsum and due to that it is beneficial to both owners and occupants of this factory. But gypsum partitions may be easy to damage, so this is one drawback to owners of this factory.
Floor ConstructionGround floors are constructed using cement and upper floors are constructed with timber. When consider about ground floor it was constructed using concrete and it is a finished cut floor. In fact it helps ease of maintain for owners as well as it is not subjected to make sounds. So this function is beneficial for occupants’ daily routine. Some areas are finished using tiles and they are light in colour. Due to that it improves lighting in indoor environment. This also may help to occupants. By the way timber is an environmental friendly material and it has effective cost. MAS purchased these timber from a company which has reserved timber. So it do not impact on environment.
Doors and windowsIn MAS Thurulie they constructed windows and doors using glazed and aluminum. When consider about glaze, it can provide natural light to the building while adding an external aesthetic appearance. Glaze material is not much economical for owners due its initial price. However it can provide benefits for occupants of this building through provide lighting. By the way glazed windows can reduce the usage of electricity, it may provide long term benefit for owners
Aluminum doors are economical than timber doors as well as fire resistance. Not only that this material is easily available due to that it is economical for owners. Re use and recycle properties also consist with aluminum. So above facts provide considerable details in order to prove, it provide benefits for owners. These types of doors are easily operate, so it is beneficial for occupants.
Alternative Green Materials and Selection Criteria that can be Used to Improve the Functions of the Building.Alternative Materials”MAS Intimates Thirulie” is a LEED platinum certified building in Sri Lanka, which was built according to U.S. green building council. In addition, they have many awards as the green construction. So, there are no more alternative green materials to propose instead of used materials. But below materials can be proposed instead of some materials.
Dura board is a modern green building material which is constructed using compressed straws. It is more economical material when compared to other building material. In contrast Gypsum boards are used for partitions in MAS Thurulie, instead of using gypsum boards, dura boards may provide more environmental friendliness to the building. Not only that, it may not require more time to install. It can be taken as green building material due to its recyclable and reusable ability and energy efficiency.
Vertical greening may apply to the building using walls. Several types of vegetation can grow on the wall surface using small plunks. This method is called as indirect greening. In MAS Thurulie they used horizontal greening method to the roof top in order to reduce heat. This vertical greening method also may be applied to the building for thermal insulation. It has ability to improve better indoor environment for occupants. Due to that it can be taken under green building aspect.
Sewer treatment plants
MAS Intimates Thirulie is a very large textile company. So according to their records about 2000 employees are working in this building. So very large water content can be wasted as waste water and sewer. If they treat sewer and use them to watering to plants they can reduce the water consumption of the building.
Linear fluorescent lights & Solar reflective mirrors
Instead of LED bulbs solar reflective mirrors has less maintenance cost and it do not require electricity due to that it reduce the usage of electricity and also there is no electrical short circuits. Another alternative material for LED bulb is linear fluorescent lights. It has low cost and durable than LED bulbs. Not only those benefits, it can provide energy efficiency.
Cost comparison of used and alternative materials
Earth bricks are used for the non-load bearing walls of this building. It is environmental friendly material. But cost of the earth brick is higher than burnt clay bricks and other blocks. Not only that it requires higher initial cost as well as higher installation cost due to more skilled labour works. Therefore earth brick walls are not more economical that other types of bricks and blocks. But in the case of green material it do not pollute environment and do not consume more energy in manufacturing process than other materials.
Dura board partitions are economical that gypsum boards. Because it requires less labour cost in manufacturing process until its installation.
Vertical greening has ability to reduce energy usage in air conditioning because it can insulate heat and provide better indoor environment. Due to that this method also economical to the building to increase its functioning.
Timber is another green building material which is used for floor in some areas. In fact it also an economical material due to its operational functions. But it should be properly maintain to achieve its optimal economic conditions. Some other parts of the floor is finished using cement and it was used troweling method to make its concrete finish cut. Although this method is not more economical but it may economical because it do not require floor finishing tiles. In contrast, working area of the building is finished using light colour tiles to reduce the energy usage and it can help to improve economic benefits of the building.
Although linear fluorescent lights and solar reflective mirrors have high initial cost than LED bulbs it can reduce maintenance and operational cost than LED bulbs.
Occupational Safety and Health Comparison between Used Green Building Materials and Other Alternative Materials.MAS intimates thurulie is leading green oriented facility in Sri Lanka. As a responsible brand name in Sri Lanka, MAS management has concerned on choosing green building materials focusing on occupational safety and health as well. A comparison of used green building materials and other alternative building materials under occupational safety and health is given below.
Zn?Al? as a roof cooling material.Zinc Aluminate is used to paint the roofs. It has a special quality of absorbing the heat. For that reason it can rise up the temperature gap between the roof top and the inside of the building. Thus the comfortableness of working of the occupants is increased. Hence they could contribute their maximum efficiency for the manufacturing procedure. Whereas other roofing paints fail to reduce the temperature level when transferring heat into the building. Thus using Zn?Al? as a green building material is very important.
Grass on the roofs.On top of the buildings they have grown grass to lessen the heat of the building. It comforts the working environment of the occupants. Concrete has a considerable capability of thermal conductivity. Therefore exposing concrete flat roof to the sunbeams can increase the heat of the building.
Cement stabilized earth brick.When manufacturing cement stabilized earth bricks, clay is used in a greater portion. Thus it gives more natural environment to the building than cement bricks. It helps to reduce the temperature of the building and also it has a specific aesthetic appearance. By providing a pleasant environment around workers can improve the level of mental health of occupants. Further this brick walls are not needed to be painted. Wall paints emit VOC (volatile organic compound) gases to the atmosphere. After painting the walls, occupants may not feel comfortable with the environment. When considering on OSH strategies it is very important to use cement stabilized earth bricks.
GlassFor the upper level of wall around the building they have used wide glasses with the intention of providing a relaxed mindset for the workers. If the entire wall is built with the bricks workers may feel boredom. Seeing the beautiful nature outside the walls may heal their tired and mental stresses.
ConclusionThis report explained how MAS Thurulie use green building concepts and sustainability ideas in their project. MAS management has concerned on choosing green building materials focusing on occupational safety and health. There are some alternative material use for occupational safety and health. These are Zinc Aluminum, Grass on roofs, cement stabilized earth brick, Glass and Floor tiles.
This report also explained about benefits and drawbacks of using green building materials. Basically, earth bricks are used to construct non-load bearing walls and in floor construction, ground floor is constructed by using cement and upper floor is constructed by timber. Grass roof top and Zn/Al sheets are used as roof covering to improve green building aspects. In this building internal material also used sustainable material such as LED bulbs, Sewer treatment plant and aluminum works. Some factors are followed to maintain the green building concepts these are Resource efficiency, indoor air quality, energy efficiency and water efficiency.
ReferencesWGBC. (2016). Retrieved 2018, from World Green Building Council: http://www.worldgbc.org/what- green-building
Mallikage. (2015). Green Building Concept and its Sri Lankan Context. Retrieved 2018, from Foresty and Environment Science Book: http://www.sjp.ac.lk/sites/forestry/2015/04/02/green-building- concept-and-its-sri-lankan-context/
Slides of the Presentation