ASSESSMENT COVER PAGE
Course Name: Language and Development: SLA Principles and Pedagogy Course Code: 2303
Instructor Name: Task Title: Assessment 1 – Coursework: Essay
Due Date: October 2nd by 4PM BBLearnDate Submitted: Name of Student: Mouza Saeed Al DhaheriStudent ID: H00292234Section: Late Penalty:
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All around the world people believe language is difficult to acquire. This essay will discuss whether language is learned or acquired, the various theorists’ views of language acquisition (LA) and the role that Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) plays in language development.
Stages of Language Acquisition
Researchers around the world have agreed that there are distinct stages in LA. The first stage is called the Pre – linguistic stage and it is in this stage that children practice language without having mastered it. Essentially, they are “pretend” talking. Within this stage there are five substages. The first substage is called ‘phonation’ stage, which occurs from birth through 2 months. For example, when someone talk to baby they will reaction to them by smiling, giggle or making sound. Also, they will start to say utters vowel-constant sounds. The second sub stage is the ‘Goo’ stage and It’s begin from two to three months. In this sub-stage the children will start to know language that they hear it while their mother talking. For example, know the attitudes and reactions of the speaker. Also, they will understand the determination and questions. Thirdly, Expansion sub stage, starts from four to six months. Children in this sub stage start to move their eyes and want to find where is the sound from CITATION Nan17 l 1033 (Tarshis, 2017). The next sub-stage is Canonical, it’s start from seven to ten months. In this sub-stage children do what they can to have their parent attention like coughing. As Tarshis said children will do anything to let their parent see them like take what in their parent have on their hands CITATION Nan17 l 1033 (Tarshis, 2017). Finally, the last sub-stage called Variegated which is before real words, starts from eleven to twelve months. Children in this stage they think they are really talking.
The second stage is referred to as the “Linguistic” stage and this when children begin to use language as adults would. There are three sub-stages and the first sub-stage is called the Holophrastic which is from twelve to seventeen months. Children in this stage start to speak and say one word such as what they can see at home in front of them. In this stage children start to say words like mama, doggie and car. Also, they can answer their parent’s questions, describe the things that they can see this sub-stage called Telegraphic. However, the third sub-stage is Multiple word, it’s begin from twenty to twenty-seven months. Children can make sentence but in words. Also, they can make a questions and create a stories.
In addition to LA being acquired in specific stages, it also has an expiration date called the critical period of hypothesis (CPH). In the critical period hypotheses state says that in the first two years children can learn the language if someone give them adequate stimuli and after the two years if they didn’t get it they will not learn anything. For example, there is many stories about the feral children. This girl called Oksana she was three years old and they left her outside by her parent’s because they were drink, after that she was resaid by the dog and she was act like the dogs. According to Vladimir Nagorny said “children can copy the habits creatures around them if this creatures are humans bens they will be like the humans bens” CITATION Vla14 l 1033 (Nagorny, 2014).
Second Language Acquisition Theories
SLA is a topic of heated debate among researchers. Several theories explain SLA differently The first theory is called behaviorism. According to fellow behaviorist, like Skinner, he believe that it’s means say what I say. According to CITATION McG97 l 1033 (McGlothlin, 1997) he said that the children want to participate what in around him to help him to learn a new language. also, he wants to do what the others do and when it’s comes to language he wants to learn it. As every child they want to learn but they copy what they see around them and do it. Even when they see someone talking they tried to speak like them. Which the writer says, that in Colin’s case that they couldn’t teach him some words like thank you because he was so young to learn these words. But they teach his big brother when he can use thank you. Children learn the behavior in school, sometimes the children do many things that will abscess the teacher for example they have the stars board when the children do something good and their behavior is okay they will have a star but when they do something wrong the teacher will take a star from him and let him set down alone and try to thing what he do and what he can do to fix this problem.
Another theory is called Innatist, which according to Chomsky, these theorists believe all children can learn the language .However, Krashen also an Innatist viewed SLA differently. He developed 5 hypotheses. The first one called Acquisition, krashen says that adult and children can learn the language without felling. Or they can learn it if it was written or oral. The second hypotheses are monitor, it the language that he was learn it. children can learn in a good learner system, also they can occur it just by if the learner have a time and take care of their health and they need to know the right roles. Third hypotheses is Natural Order according to CITATION Kra11 l 1033 (Krashen’s, 2011) “The acquisition of grammatical structures follows a “natural order” which is predictable. English is perhaps the most studied language as far as natural order hypothesis is concerned, and of all structures of English, morphology is the most studied”.
Finally, cognitivist, also known as Development list like Vygotsky and Piaget believe that children develop SLA through face to face interaction. Piaget think that it is so important to learn language. Cognitive development is important because it let the children fell notice and let them think what they want and what they want to do in future and achieve it. But Vygotsky believe that ZPD and it’s known with what the children need to know and what they need to help with to develop.
It is my opinion I agree with Chomsky because he says that the children can learn and language. So, many children before they go to school they know more words or the name of things because they was learned at home by their parents. For example, when I was in teaching practice there is a girl called Meera she was so elegant also her mother says that her tougher was learning many things when she was young even she was learning how to ask questions when she listen to them talking.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Krashen’s. (2011, march 31). Krashen’s theory on Second Language Acquisition . Retrieved from slideshare: https://www.slideshare.net/milaazofeifa/krashens-theory-on-second-language-acquisition
McGlothlin, J. D. (1997). A Child’s First Steps in Language Learning. The Internet TESL Journal. Retrieved from iteslj: http://iteslj.org/Articles/McGlothlin-ChildLearn.html
Nagorny, V. (2014, 07 04). Wild Child: The Story Of Feral Children . Retrieved from Youtube : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cymZq1VblU0&feature=youtu.be
Tarshis, N. (2017, 12 09). Baby Talk from First Sounds to First Word . Retrieved from Youtube : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7OT7X70enM&t=10s