1

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
National Capital Region
Division City Schools Manila

MANILA SCIENCE HIGH
SCHOOL
Taft Ave., cor. Padre Faura St., Ermita,
Manila

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

Adsorption of contaminants in sewage water using activated Saccharum officinarum
(Sugarcane) bagasse charcoal

Sheila Mae S.Ilao
Sofia Vianka V.Ingeniero
Janelle Anne L.Melchor

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract
3
1.Introduction
3
2.Methodology

2.1 Research Design 5
2.2 Research Locale
5
2.3 Data Gathering Procedures
5
2.4 Statistical Analysis
7
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Findings 7
3.2 Discussion
7
3.3 Conclusion and Recommendation
8
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
8
REFERENCES
8
APPENDICES

Appendix A – Letter of Request 10
Appendix B – Authentication 13
Appendix C – Laboratory Results 14
Appendix D – SPSS Results 16
Appendix E – ISEF Forms 17
Appendix F – Journal Entries 23
Appendix G – Receipts 36
Appendix H – Documentation 39
CURRICULUM VITAE 4 5

3
Adsorption of contaminants in sewage water using activated Saccharum
officinarum (Sugarcane) bagasse charcoal
Sheila Mae S.Ilao 1,a)
, Sofia Vianka V.Ingeniero 1,b) 1,c)
1
Manila Science High School
a)
[email protected], b)
[email protected], c)
[email protected]

Abstract
Agricultural waste such as Saccharum Officinarum bagasse is a good and cheap precursors for the prod uction of activated
carbon. In this study, Saccharum Officinarum bagasse underwent pyrolysis through the Drum Kiln Method wherein it
was subjected to 2000 degrees Celsius for 40 minutes and was cooled down for 20 minutes after. The Saccharum
Officinarum ba gasse was then used, combined with commercially available charcoal, to filter the collected wastewater.
The concentration of microorganisms was measured through Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) analysis. The initial
water sample shows BOD level of 11, indicating a large amount of organic material. The wastewater was then filtered
using varying concentrations of 150g activated carbon for 10 minutes. Set – up 1 contai ned 100% of Saccharum
officinarum activated charcoal, set – up 2 has 75% Saccharum officinarum activated charcoal and 25% commercially
available activated charcoal, set – up 3 has 75% commercially available activated charcoal and 25% Saccharum
officinarum act ivated charcoal and set – up 4 contained 100% of commercially available activated charcoal. After the
treatment, the water sample undergone BOD once again. It shows that there was a constant decrease in BOD level for all
the set – ups from 11mg/L to 3mg/L, whi ch indicate a moderately clean water with some organic contaminants. Using
One – way ANOVA, results show that there is no significant difference between the adsorptive capability of varying
concentration of Saccharum Officinarum Bagasse Charcoal and commerci ally available activated charcoal. Hence,
making it an effective alternative in adsorbing organic matter in wastewater.
Keywords : Saccharum officinarum bagasse, Adsorption,Acivated Charcoal, Biochemical Oxygen Demand
1.Introduction The
Philippines is a developing nation that
has
experienced a rapid rise in urbanization and
industrialization
as its population has grown rapidly.
Unfortunately,
this rapid development has come at a
price
of increased water pollution, with 47% of all
surveyed
water bodies in the country having good
water
quality, 40% having only fair water quality,
and
13% having poor water quality. (Khalid,2015).
The
major sources of water pollution in the
country
are inadequately treated domestic
wastewater(Reeh,2016).
Wastewater may contain
toxic
chemicals,hazardous and organic substances,
and
pathogenic organisms.If left untreated,this will
create
problems to ecosystems and people’s
health(Magtibay,2017).
According to World Health
Organization
in 2017, many are at risk of contracting
diseases
from the poorly managed wastewater.
Department
of Environment and Natural
Reseources(DENR)in
2013 stated that 44 people die
daily
from diseases caused by lack of proper sewage
and
sanitation facilities. Waterborne pathogens,such
as
E. Coli,cholera,camplylobacteriosis and others are
also
a water pollution risk(Reeh,2016)
Pathogens present in sewage water are
responsible
for spreading different kinds diseases.
Stagnant
water fosters the growth of mosquitoes,
which
in turn causes diseases like malaria. These
pathogens
pose a great risk to human health.
Therefore,
polluted water acts as a host to several
pathogenic
microbes (Gershenz, 2018).
According
to Water Environment
Partnership
in Asia (WEPA) in 2016, water
pollution’s
effects cost the Philippines approximately
$1.3
billion annually. The government continues to
try
to clean up the problem, but many of these are
still
have not been addressed.
Because
of that, scientists and researchers
are
studying and trying out different solutions to treat
wastewater.
One of these is through the use of
activated
carbon. Activated carbon has been an
effective
treatment option for years and can be used to
remove
contaminants from wastewater streams
(Matthis,
2017)
There
are previous researches about the
production
of activated carbon from sugarcane
bagasses.
It would be an ideal plant for treating
sewage.It
is also one of the most common
agricultural
wastes in the Philippines,along with rice

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husk, rice straw,coconut husk and coconut
shell,which
costs little to no money to obtain.
Moreover,
the plant is abundant in the
country,making
it practical and inexpensive way to
lessen
the contaminants from wastewater.

The
researchers pursued the following
throughout
the period of the study.
1.
What is the amount of micropollutants present in the
collected
sample of sewage water?
2.
How much organic matter can be adsorbed from the
sewage
water in varying concentrations using
Saccharum
officinarum (Sugarcane) Bagasse
activated
charcoal and commercially available
activated
charcoal mixture in the fpllowing
concentrations:

2.1
100% bagasse charcoal;
2.2
75% and 25%;
2.3
50% and 50%; and
2.4
100% commercially available
activated
charcoal
3.
What significant difference exists among the
adsorptive
capabilities of activated Saccharum
officinarum
bagasse charcoal in varying
concentrations?

The
researchers formulated a hypothesis
based
on the stated problems above:
1.
There is significant difference in
the
adsorptive capabilities of
activated
Saccharum
officinarum
bagasse charcoal in
varying
concentration

The
researchers produced activated charcoal
from
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) bagasses
which
was then used for sewage treatment. The study
might
provide a low-cost alternative solution for
removing
the organic matter and microorganisms, that
pose
health risks to humans, in wasterwater.
The
Local Government Units (LGU’s)
might
find this study helpful. By utilizing the
activated
charcoal obtained from Saccharum
officinarum
(sugarcane) bagasses, they could use it to
properly
manage the sewage in their own locations.
The
residents near wasewater might find the
results
of this research beneficial.It could help in lessening
the
harmful contents found in wastewater, thus
llessening
the cases of diseases that were
brought uponthe people,especially children, by these
sewages.

Lastly,
the study might aid future
researchers
in learning further about activated
charcoal
and how it could be used for proper
wastewater
management. Moreover, it might also be a
bridge
to create more ideas, studies, or researches for
developing
other ways to address the sewage problem
in
the Philippines.
The
main focus of the study was to identify the
adsorptive
capability of activated carbon from
Saccharum
officinarum bagasse husk on sewage.
There
was only one parameter tested, which was the
amount
of organic matter adsorbed in varying
concentrations
of Saccharum officinarum bagasse
husk
activated carbon and commercially available
activated
carbon. The concentrations used were 100%
bagasse
husk, 75% bagasse husk and 25%
commercial,
25% bagasse husk and 75% commercial, and
100%
commercial. Laboratory work was done outside
the
school premises due to the absence of facilities in
campus,
resulting in the need of experts’ help in the
laboratory
that the experiment was performed in. The
researchers
were not permitted to do the technical work
themselves.
The full study was accomplished in a span
of
the first semester of the school year.

In
this study, the following terms were
defined
based on how its concept was used in the
study.
This can help to further understand the
research.

Activated Charcoal A type of carbon that has
been treated with oxygen that forms highly porous
charcoal . In this study, it was used to treat wastewater by
adsorbing the micropollutants present.
Adsorption A process used in this study to
accumulate micropollutants from the sewage water. This
could also be used to purify and remove contaminants from
wastewate r streams.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand(BOD) analysis
determines the quantity of oxygen which is consumed in
the course of aerobic processes of decomposition of
organic materials, caused by microorganisms. In this study,
BOD analysis helped the researchers id entify the
concentration of microorganisms in the wastewater sample
before and after the treatment.
Micropollutants These are organic whose toxic,
persistent and bioaccumulative properties causes negative
effect on the environment In this study, it is the measured
variable that determines the adsorption capability of the
activated charcoal set – up.

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activated carbon. Saccharum officinarum bagasse It refers to the
fibrous residue after juicing the sugarcane. It is the leftover
pulp of the after squeezing stems, leaves, or fruits. In this
study, it was used as the main component of the activated
charcoal.
2. METHODOLOGY
The
researchers gathered Saccharum
officinarum
bagasse from Binondo, Manila. Drum
Kiln
method was used in order to produce a solid
residue
enriched in carbon—activated carbon—by
carbonization
through pyrolysis (Tan, 2017). The
researchers
designed four set-ups namely 100%
sugarcane
bagasse activated carbon, 75% sugarcane
bagasse
activated carbon and 25% commercially-
available
activated carbon, 50% sugarcane bagasse
activated
carbon and 50% commercially-available
activated
carbon, and 100% commercially-available
activated.
To determine the adsorptive capacity,
sewage
sample was subjected to a biochemical
analysis
to identify micropollutants. The water was
filtered
using the four set-ups and underwent another
chemical
analysis to identify significant difference
before
and after filtering. One-way ANOVA was
used
to analyze the data gathered statistically.

2.1. Design
The
researchers used quantitative research
method,
true experimental design in investigating the
adsorptive
capacity of varying concentrations of
activated
carbon from sugarcane bagasse and
commercially
available activated carbon.

Figure
1: Methodological Framework 2.2. Locale
The
Saccharum officinarum bagasse was
obtained
from Healthy Cane in Binondo,Manila and
was
verified by registered botanist of the Bureau of
Plant
Industry (BPI) on Malate, Manila. The
researchers
conducted Phase 1 of the experiment,
which
was the creation of activated carbon with
varying
concentration of Saccharum officinarum
bagasse
charcoal at the Ecosystems Research and
Development
Bureau, located in Los Baños,Laguna;
supervised
by a certified chemist. After the
carbonization
through drum kiln, the researchers then
proceeded
in the collection of waste water sample.
The
water testing was conducted at the Intertek
Testing
Services Philippines, in Makati City.

2.3 Data Gathering Procedure

The
researchers divided the data gathering
and
procedure into two parts. Phase 1 is for making the
activated
charcoal from the sugarcane bagasse. First,
the
materials were collected and sun dried for six
hours.

Figure
2: Sun drying of Saccharum
officinarum
bagasse

Next,
it underwent the Drum Kiln Method
wherein
the sugarcane bagasse underwent
carbonization
through pyrolysis–the bagasse was
subjected
to a high temperature, 2000 degrees Celsius
for
40 minutes and was cooled down for 20 minutes
after.
The intense heat caused thermal decomposition,
producing
solid residues enriched in carbon—

Figure
3: Carbonization of Saccharum officinarum
bagasse
through Drum Kiln

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To produce fine, solid ash, the sugarcane bagasse was
next
cooked in the hot plate at 150 degrees celsius for
30
minutes and was grinded after.

Figure
4: Hot-plate method

F
igure 5: Grinding of Sugarcane
bagasse
charcoal

Four
set-ups were made to test the adsorptive
capability
of the activated charcoal made namely;
100%
sugarcane bagasse, 75% sugarcane bagasse and
25%
commercially available activated charcoal, 50%
sugarcane
bagasse and 50% commercially available
activated
charcoal, and 100% commercially available
activated
charcoal wherein each set-up consists of
500g
of activated charcoal.

Figure
6: Four set-ups with varying
concentrations
of Activated Charcoal
Phase 2 is for the filtration of the sewage
water.
Biochemical oxygen demand was conducted
first
to establish concentration of organic matter in
the
sample. The change in dissolved oxygen was
observed
at the beginning and end of a five-day
period
in which the sample is held in dark, incubated
conditions
Next, the water was poured into the four
set-ups
and the filtered water was collected and was
analyzed
again to determine if there was a significant
difference
before and after the filtration process

Figure
7: Wastewater before filtration

Figure
8: Filtration of water samples

Figure
9: Filtered Water Samples

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2.4 Statistical Analysis The
one-way Analysis of Variance was used
as
a statistical tool, through the SPSS Version 16 for
Windows
Software, to determine the significant
differences
among the adsorptive capacity of each
set-ups
with varying concentrations of activated
Saccharum
officinarum bagasse charcoal.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The
results were measured and gathered by the
researchers
themselves with the help of their qualified
scientist.
The measured data, had undergone One-way
Analysis
of Variance through Windows SPSS.

3.1 Findings

Table
1. Biochemical Oxygen Demand level
of sample
sewage water using varying concentration
of activated
carbon

Table 2. Interpretation of Biochemical Oxygen
Demand levels from Vernier Software and
Technology

Table 3. Test of significant difference between varying
concentrations of activated carbon

3.2 Analysis and Discussion
The results were given by the Intertek Testing
Services Philippines representing the amount of oxygen
consumed by bacteria and other microorganisms while
they decompose organic matter under aerobic
conditions at a specified temperature (Sawyer A nd
McCarty). This leads to the consideration of these
materials in terms of their susceptibility to oxidation by
the use of oxygen. BOD is stated in mg/l of oxygen and
is usually measured within a period of 5 days (BOD5)
under 20 degrees Celsius.
Table 1 shows the Biochemical Oxygen
Demand level of the sample sewage water before and
after filtration. The test conducted was chosen because
BOD is widely used as an indication of the organic
quality of water. It is a robust surrogate of the degree of
organic p ollution of water. (YSI Incorporated).
Furthermore, BOD is a parameter for wastewater
treatment that provides an index to assess the effect
discharged wastewater will have on the receiving
environment (Real Tech Incorporated).
Table 2 indicates the inter pretation for BOD levels.
According to Real Tech Incorporated, generally, the
maximum allowable concentration for direct
environmental wastewater discharge fall around
10mg/L BOD. Larger quantities of organic water in the
sample means there are a lot of mi cropollutants present,
working to decompose this waste, which results to
higher oxygen demands and higher BOD level.
(ReVelle and ReVelle)
It can be seen from the data in Table 1 that the
initial water sample has a BOD level of 11, indicating a
large amount of organic material. The wastewater was
then filtered using varying concentrations of 150g
activated carbon for 10 minutes. Set – up 1 cont ained
150g of Saccharum officinarum activated charcoal, set –
up 2 has 112.5g Saccharum officinarum activated
charcoal and 37.5g commercially available activated
charcoal, set – up 3 has 112.5g commercially available
activated charcoal and 37.5g Saccharum offi cinarum
activated charcoal and set – up 4, which is the positive
control, contained 150g of commercially available
activated charcoal. The concentration used was deemed
necessary by the researchers to compare the positive and
negative control. Furthermore, d uring the water
filtration through activated carbon, contaminants adhere
to the surface of these carbon granules or become Concentration Before
Filtration After
Filtration
100%
Sugarcane
Bagasse 11 3
75% Sugarcane
Bagasse
25%
Commercially
Available 11 3
75%
Commercially
Available
25% Sugarcane
Bagasse 11 3
100%
Commercially
Available 11 3

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trapped in the small pores of the activated carbon
(AMIRAULT et al. 2003).
It can be seen in table 1 that after the treatment
and on ce again undergoing BOD, there was a constant
decrease in BOD level for all the set – ups from 11mg/L
to 3mg/L, which indicates a moderately clean water
with some organic contaminants.
Table 3 shows the results of the One – Way
ANOVA test of significant differ ence between the BOD
levels under four set – ups of Saccharum officinarum
bagasse activated charcoal and commercially available
activated charcoal using IBM SPSS Statistics 23. It
indicates that there is no significant difference, thus
accepting the null hyp othesis.
There is no significant difference because both
materials used has a high carbon content therefore
exhibiting similar adsorptive capabilities. The result
also supports the claim that this method is effective for
removing certain organic materials . (Mazille and
Spuhler, 2018)
From this, the researchers have inferred that
Saccharum officinarum bagasse and commercially
available activated carbon share the same properties.
Powdered activated carbon can r emove organic
chemicals and reduce toxicity in some wastewaters to
allow for safe discharge into surface water and are a
widely accepted technology for treating and removing
organics. (Water Technology, 2017).
3.3. Conclusion And Recommendation
The
data which undergone statistical
treatment
shows that the hypothesis was accepted,
which
suggests that there is no significant difference
between
the adsorptive capability of varying
concentration
of Saccharum Officinarum Bagasse
Charcoal
and commercially available activated
charcoal.
Hence, making it an effective alternative in
adsorbing
organic matter in wastewater. The
researchers
were able to conclude this because of one
parameter,
which was the change in the Biochemical
Oxygen
Demand (BOD) of the wastewater before and
after
the treatment. The concentrations used were
100%
bagasse charcoal, 75% bagasse charcoal and
25%
commercially available charcoal, 25% bagasse
charcoal
and 75% commercially available charcoal,
and
100% commercial which all have an initial of
11mg/L
Biochemical Oxygen demand before the
treatment
and was reduced into 3 mg/L , 3 mg/L,
3mg/L,
3 mg/L respectively after the treatment.
After
formulating the conclusions, certain
recommendations
were given for the betterment of
the
research. The researchers made the following
recommendations: (1)Use different type of
wastewater
to treat ; (2) Identify the adsorption
capability
of Saccharum Officinarum Bagasse
Charcoal
on chemical components of the wastewater
;
(3) Work on different type of contaminants and test
the
adsorptive capability of Saccharum Officinarum
Bagasse
Charcoal on it; (4) Consider other
parameters(time
and temperature); and (5) Instead of
Saccharum
Officinarum bagasse charcoal try a
different
type of agricultural waste that can also lead to
adsorbing
organic matter.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The
researchers would like express their deepest
gratitude
to the people who willingly helped the
completion
of this paper. First and foremost to the
researchers’
adviser in Practical Research 2, Dr.
Jonas
Feliciano Domingo for the continued
guidance
and motivation. His vast knowledge and
experience
certainly helped the accomplishment of
the
research. To Ecosystems Research and
Development
Bureau (ERDB), for leading the
researchers
in making the Saccharum officinarum
bagasse
activated charcoal. To Mr. Digno Garcia,
Kuya
Fred and Kuya Robert, for assisting the
researchers’
needs. To Intertek Testing Services
Philippines,
for providing extensive professional
guidance.
To Mrs. Elizabeth Marasigan, for lending all
laboratory
equipment needed by the researchers. To
the
parents of the researchers for their
unconditional
love and support towards any
endeavor.
Most importantly, to God, for blessing the
researchers
with strength and wisdom. None of these
would
be possible without Him.

REFERENCES

I.A.W. Tan, A. A. (2007). Preparation of
activated carbon from coconut husk:
Optimization study on removal of 2,4,6 –
trichlorophenol using response surface
methodology. Journal of Hazardous
Materials .
Magtibay, B. (2017). Many at risk of contracting
diseases from the poorly managed
wastewater of 26 million Filipinos .
Ret rieved from World Health
Organization:
http://www.wpro.who.int/philippines/me

9
diacentre/features/world_water_day_20
17_PHL/en/
Marrone, R. (2016, October 2). Water Pollution in
the Philippines: Causes and Solutions .
Retrieved from BorgenMagazine:
http://www.borgenmagazine.com/water –
pollution – in – the – philippines/
Matthis, J. (2017, May 25). Activated Carbon
Options . Retrieved from
Watertechonline:
https://www.watertecho nline.com/activa ted –
carbon – options – 0517/
Physical and chemical assessment , 2018. (2018, June).
Retrieved July 30, 2018, from
Environmental Protection (Water)
Policy. gov:
https://www.ehp.qld.gov .au/water/monit
oring/sampling – manual/pdf/physical –
and – chemical – assesssment – manual –
collection – of – surface – water – samples –
including – field – filtration.pdf
Ranada, P. (2013). 55 die daily in PH from lack of
proper sewerage. Manila: Rappler. Reeh. (2016, September 29). The State of
Freshwater Sources in the Philippines .
Retrieved from Greenpeace.org:
http://www.greenpeace.org/seasia/ph/W hat –
we – do/Toxics/Water – Patrol/The – problem/
Sewage Water Pollution: A Deadly Threat to
B iodiversity . (2018, January 24).
Retrieved from Helpsavenature.com:
https://helpsavenature.com/sewage – water –
pollution
Thomas Publishing Company. (2018, June 4).
Producing Activated Carbon . Retrieved
June 16, 2018, from thomasnet:
https://www.thomasnet.com/articles/che
micals/producing – activated – carbon
Water Pollution in the Philippines: Causes and
Solutions . (2015, October 19). Retrieved from
Greentumble:
https://gr eentumble.com/water –
pollution – in – the – philippines – causes – and –
solutions/

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Appendix A – Letter of Request

11
Appendix A – Letter of Request

12

Appendix A – Letter of Request

13

Appendix B – Authentication

14
Appendix C – Laboratory Results

15
Appendix C – Laboratory Results

16
Appendix D – SPSS Results

17
Appendix E – ISEF Forms

18
Appendix E – ISEF Forms

19
Appendix E – ISEF Forms

20
Appendix E – ISEF Forms

21
Appendix E – ISEF Forms

22

Appendix E – ISEF Forms

23
Appendix F – Journal Entries

24
Appendix F – Journal Entries

25
Appendix F – Journal Entries

26
Appendix F – Journal Entries

27
Appendix F – Journal Entries

28
Appendix F – Journal Entries

29
Appendix F – Journal Entries

30
Appendix F – Journal Entries

31

Appendix F – Journal Entries

32
Appendix F – Journal Entries

33

Appendix F – Journal Entries

34

Appendix F – Journal Entries

35

Appendix G – Receipts

36

Appendix G – Receipts

37
Appendix G – Receipts

38
Appendix H – Documentation

Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau in the University of the Philippines Los Banos

Preparation of the Saccharum officinarum (Sugarcane) Bagasse

39
Appendix H – Documentation

P roduction of Activated Charcoal using Drum Kiln

40
Appendix H – Documentation

Activated Charcal produced from undergoing the Drum Kiln

41
Appendix H – Documentation

Activated Charcoal undergoing Hot Plate

Grinding of the Activated Charcoal

42

Appendix H – Documentation

The Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Charcoal

Preparation of the four setups

43
Appendix H – Documentation

Wastewater sample before undergoing the Activated Charcoal filter

Wastewater filtration using Activated Charoal from Sugarcane Bagasse

44
Appendix H – Documentation

Was
Wastewater after undergoing the Activated Charcoal filter

45
CURRICULUM VITAE

Name:Sheila Mae S.Ilao
Contact#: 09175076387
Email address: [email protected]

Name: Sofia Vianka V.Ingeniero
Contact#: 09157722707
Email address: [email protected]

Name: Janelle Anne L.Melchor
Contact#: 09773428352
Email address: [email protected]

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