A Computer is used in daily life as a tool to complete tasks like email, assisting in presentations, writing papers, as well as many others. They are highly complex machines made up of many parts. Computers are a very integral part of society today and without them there would not be a way to store and share information as well as connect with people across the globe.
2. Common Computing Devices:
Depending on the needs of a person there are many different types of computer to choose from. Different types include the desktop computer, laptop, all-in-one, tablet, and even smartphone. The desktop computer is typically the most common computer used in businesses and home lives because it offers the most functionality of the different types. The laptop is also a popular choice because of its portability and versatility.
3. Hand Held Computer
The most portable computer device is the handheld computer. It is the smallest of all the computers and is very useful in everyday life by assisting in daily tasks as well as a means of communication. Handheld computers are found in the smartphones that are widely used today, but because of its size it does not offer all the features of a laptop or desktop.
4. Computer Hardware
All the physical components included in a computer are called hardware. Hardware is responsible for inputting information, processing, and receiving output. Important hardware includes mouse, keyboard, CPU, motherboard, speakers, and monitor.
The central processing unit, or CPU, is a very vital part of the computer and without it the computer could not function. It is responsible for processing commands given to the computer. After receiving a command, the CPU then designates where the signal will go, allowing the computer to process information and allow the user to watch videos, listen to music, and many other tasks all at the same time.
The motherboard is comprised of parts including a video card, soundcard, network interface card, and many others. The motherboard is located inside the computer and can be considered the ‘brain’ of the device. Much like the CPU the motherboard assists in telling the computer what to do.
A port is located externally on the computer and can input, or output, information based on the type of plug inserted into the port. There are many types of port that can be found on a computer. Common ports include USB, firewire, network, monitor, and power plug port.
8. Input Device
Input devices are used to send directions to the computer. They are also the most used devices to use with the computer. Different types of input devices include the keyboard, mouse, webcam, microphone, and scanner.
9. Computer Storage
There are two types of storage for computers: internal and external. Internal storage is built into the computer’s hardware to store information. External storage is storage that can be added to the computer to increase the amount on the device. Examples of external storage are the physical flash drive and non-physical cloud storage.
A keyboard is used to input the information typed into the computer. Of the many keyboard layouts, the most popular is the QWERTY layout. The layout is named after the first six keys in the first row of letters. Keyboards are comprised of keys grouped by their function. The groups include: special keys, function keys, alphanumeric keys, navigation keys, numeric keys.
11. Operating System
The operating system controls the computer functions and programs running on the computer. The operating system also assists in installing new software. A GUI (graphical user interface) is a set of graphics and icons used to replace the complex commands used to adjust and personalize the users experience and functionality.
Data is the information used by programs. Text, images, and numbers are all types of data that can be used by programs.
When multiple computers are linked together to share resources, files, and communication, it is called a network. They are used in businesses to replace the costly need for multiple printers and storage devices. Networks are typically comprised of a server, workstation, and communication channel.
A server is a core component of a network. The server is the main computer that links all the computers in a network together and provides service. It also determines what level of access each computer in the server has to information.
A Wide Area Network, or WAN, is a large network that can span the entire globe. The connection of this server is maintained by using long wires, optical cables, or satellites. The internet is a prime example of a WAN server.
Originally intended to be a network for government and educational institutions, the internet is a public network that not reaches world-wide. The most popular service the internet offers is the WWW, or world wide web. The internet can also be used to message, job hunt, buy and sell products, and access many different means of entertainment.
Essentially a tiny internet, intranet is a special network that is only accessible by the organization that created the server. Unlike a public network like the internet, intranet requires authorization before being accessed. It provides services such as distribution of software and documents, database access, and training.
A bit is made up of every 0 and 1 in computer data. It typically translates to one letter or number. It is the smallest unit of storage measurement a computer can process.
A byte is comprised of eight bits in a sequence. A byte is the unit used when describing a computers storage capacity.
A kilobyte is the next largest storage unit following bit and byte. The kilobyte is comprised of 1,024 bytes. A small email or a text file is made up of a few kilobytes.
A terabyte is the largest unit of computer storage following the megabyte and gigabyte. It is comprised of 1,024 gigabytes or one trillion bytes. A terabyte can hold entire volumes of books it is so large.
RAM stands for random access memory and is used to store the information created by open programs. Without the proper amount of RAM, a computer cannot run programs and stream videos properly. Large programs such as video games, spreadsheets, and presentations require large amounts of RAM.
23. Instant Messaging Program
An instant messaging program allows you to send and receive messages virtually instantly. It also allows people to with one or multiple people at a time. With the proper devices many instant messaging programs offer video and voice chat programs.
Email is the electronic counterpart of postal mail. It can be used to communicate with one person or many people with different email addresses. With email you also attach files to send over a network. An email address typically follows the format of [email protected]
25. Sleep Mode
Sleep mode is a feature on almost all newer computers. Putting a computer into sleep mode preserves energy by using very minimal amounts of electricity. When in sleep mode all progress is saved making it more efficient than shutting down and restarting a computer.
26. Data Entry Operator
A data entry operator utilizes a computer to input important information such as names, account numbers, and many other important business files. After inputting information, a computer can also use it to run reports and preform calculations. A data entry operator can cover a large span of jobs, even something as simple as inputting information in a spreadsheet.
27. Travel Agents
To book tickets, reservations, and restaurants travel agents often use computers. A travel agent can also access the internet from a computer to compare prices and set itineraries. A computer can also assist a travel agent by collecting payments and storing information and communicating with clients.
28. Graphic Designers
The computer is a vital part of the job of a graphic designer. It can be used to create artwork with computer generated images and design programs. The work of graphic designers can be seen everywhere from billboards, logos, advertisements, websites, and many more.
29. Information Technology Specialist
Without the computer the information technician, or IT, would not exist. IT is a very broad profession and can range from people with self-taught skills all the way to someone with degrees and certifications. IT specialists apply their knowledge to anything and everything to do with monitoring, implementation, and maintenance of computer systems.
30. Software Developers
A software developer could be a game developer, application designer, or even simply creating software for a company. Software developers are responsible for creating, designing, and repairing software programs. The work of software developers can be seen anytime an application is opened on a device.