All praises to Allah S.W.T and to Him alone. He bestowed us health and ability to Alhamdulillah, successfully completing this 2000 words assignment. Words are insufficient to describe my gratefulness and appreciation to Him throughout the process of this assignment.
I would like to express my utmost gratitude to my instructor, Dr. Ali Al-Sayed Hassan Al-Halawani for his continuous guidance in the whole process of completing this assignment. Not to mention, my sincere appreciation goes to him, for teaching me this course “Semantics” and for being a true inspiration. I am also very grateful to him for giving a notion to investigate the current knowledge of the younger generation which will be reflected in my term paper.
Additionally, I would also like to express my gratitude to all ten respondents who participated in this study also for their enthusiasm to sacrifice their leisure time to help me in collecting data and information in order to complete this paper.
Not to mention my parents for supporting me and also my friends who help contribute ideas and also support me in my dire of need. Thank you Ubaidah Suhaimi and Adam Khairi for your support. I am extremely grateful for all the love and guidance from those who were involve in aiding me while conducting this paper. May Allah reward you with his blessing.2.0 Introduction
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful
There are many studies that falls under the English language, however the focus here is on Semantics. According to Cruse (2011) and The Merriam-Webster (2017) dictionary semantics involves the study of meaning of words, phrases and sentences. For example, when one reads the word “crash”, a car accident comes to mind. Nevertheless, the expression can also be used to discuss the sound crated when waves break against a rocky coast. Based on this example it can be said that meaning are conventionalized and convey in various way.
Riemer (2010) stated that Hyponymy is the lexical relation describes in English by the phrase kind etc. A chain of Hyponym defines the hierarchy or elements. For example, a mansion is type of a house, while a house in turn is a hyponym of building since a house is a kind of a building. The study here concentrates on Hyponym in the context where there are certain population that has complication in categorizing superordinate according to its class..
Hyponym is a relation between two words in which the meaning of one of the words include the meaning of various other words. This study here todays focusses on the relationship between the hyponymy in the English and Malay language.
As second language learners, Brown (2010) stated that an adult second language learner has two means for internalizing the target language. The first means is learning acquisition, here it refers to leaners who subconsciously construct the system of the language. In simpler terms, second language learners acquire language through intuitive process that they are not aware of. The second means is known as language learning or conscious learning in which learners are generally aware of their own learning and the process of the language. They are able to configure the rules of the language and also attempt to form what they have learned. Most the residents in Malaysia acquire their second language which is English through their education in school. As learning English is a must in every institution in Malaysia. The study here focuses on the younger generation aged from ten to twelve years old and I would like to investigate on their knowledge on their acquired second knowledge. I would have the benefit to test their knowledge on their second establish and understand if they are utilizing their knowledge at a proper scale. This is because they are there are future leader and the torch bearers of the Ummah. Thus it would worrisome if the current generation are not able to identify the superordinate terms.
2.1 Problem Statement
Certain younger generations today have complications in categorizing the superordinate according to class. In other words, they are having difficulties in understanding the meanings of terms in English language due to the fact that the Malay language is their mother tongue. Even though there are being taught in school some are not skilled to comprehend certain terms in which it may lead to different interpretation and meanings. The acquisition of Malay language affects the students’ understanding of certain English terms.
2.2 Research Questions
Can the younger generation today classify the superordinate terms into hyponym (class) accurately?
2.3 Purpose of The Study
The purpose of this study was to identify whether interpretation of superordinate terms based on schema theory of first language and second language acquisition. Furthermore to investigate the factors contributing to the different interpretation towards superordinate terms and hyponym.
3.0 Research Methodology
The respondents in this study were 10 children whose age range from ten years old to twelve years old and whose first language is Malay and second language is English
The method that was chosen for this research was a survey, which falls under quantitative research. The questionnaire consists of four parts. A sample of the survey questions is included in the appendix.
3.3 Research Procedure
The survey questions were prepared and the survey was conducted by distributing questionnaires to samples. A total of 10 samples responded to the research. The survey then was analyzed.
4.0 Findings and Discussion
Based on the survey that was conducted, the respondents tend to have different interpretation of hyponymy towards certain words.
Based on the graph 1, it can be noted that regarding question 1, out of the ten participants, seven of them classify lily, chrysanthemum, rose, daisy as garden because that is what you find when you are in a garden. While the remaining three participants classified the given Hyponyms as flowers which was the accurate and correct answer.
Referring to the graph 2, nine participants characterized the given Hyponyms Trumpet, harp, guitar as a song rather that the correct answer which was musical instrument. Only one out of the ten participants was able to classify that question correctly. The participants were not able to determine what a harp and trumpet was but assume it class should fall under song because of the guitar as guitar was used to make songs.
Graph 3 represents both question 3 and question 4. For this part of the question, all ten participants answered correctly. They were able to classify pen stapler notebook as stationery and doll, yo-yo, control car as toys. Here all ten participants were able to class them accurately as the class for these two examples was straight forward and easy.
Based on graph 4, six out of the ten participants classify eagle, robin, dove as animal while the remaining four participants classified them as birds. The correct answer was birds. Due to the fact that some were not able to distinguish the different types of bird like robin and dove, mostly assume that they were some kind of animal that was not a bird and thus answered animal. Even though the answered can be argued but the accurate answer was birds.
Graph 5 shows that for the final question two are the participants classified Cardigan, dhoti, sari as Indian. This because of the word sari and dhoti clouded their judgement as that is what Indian wear thus is why they answered as so. While the remaining eight participants who answered correctly classified them as clothes.
5.0 Limitations of the Study
Although the research has reached its objectives, there were some limitations to it. Firstly the target population for the respondent for the research was small as it was only limited to ten participants. In order to receive more data and to compare it in order to accomplish the research objectives, the study should have involve more participants with various age range. Also not only focus those whose first language was Malay but also other language besides English. Second is the questionnaire that was given to the participants. Certain question was not up to par with the participant’s knowledge and the number of the questionnaire was little. Therefore if these research is conducted again, the questionnaire should be at a better level and also increase the number of its question. Finally the lack of previous research to help further explain the theory and idea of the current paper.
In conclusion a chain of hyponymy defines the hierarchy or elements certain class group as mentioned in the introduction. This paper is trying to emphasis the knowledge of the young generation on the English language they have acquired, and to investigate the factors contributing to the different interpretation towards superordinate terms and hyponym. Due to the fact that some of the participants lack vocabulary and knowledge which led them to answer as discussed in the findings above. This proves that not many of the younger generation are not able to classify superordinate terms into hyponym (class) accurately. Even though that all the children are being thought in school about the rules and process of the English language, this study shows that there are some who are not able to process the information accurately
Effective alternatives should be taken by the parents and the education department of the participants in order for them to be able mastered in recognizing or classifying the characteristics classes of certain words or objects. It is worrisome to see that the younger generation aren’t able to see the chain of hyponymy. The best answer for the participants to improve and master in classifying words is to look at the dictionary. The dictionary plays a vital role in helping them in overcoming the issue and help them understand the elements of said word. Teachers should also introduce more vocabulary to students in class and parents should encourage their children to read more. Furthermore thou it may seem a small matter know, you may never know how something small might affect the future.
Brown, D. H (2000). Principles of language learning ; teaching (4th ed). New York:
Cowie, A. P. (2009). Semantics. New York: Oxford University Press
Cruse, A. (2011). Meaning in language: An introduction to semantics and pragmatics.
Riemer, N (2010). Introducing Semantics. Cambridge University Press
Webster, M. (2017). The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster.
Example Hyponyms Superordinate/ Group
Screwdriver, hammer, spanner Tools
Question Hyponyms Superordinate/
1 Lily, chrysanthemum, rose, daisy
2 Trumpet, harp, guitar
3 Pen stapler notebook 4 Doll, yo-yo, control car 5 Eagle, robin, dove 6 Cardigan, dhoti, sari